BeccariaC.W. (1764). On crimes and punishment (H. Paolucci,. Trans.). New York: Bobbs- Merrill, 1963.

Bechbache R.R., Duffin -I (1977). The entrapment of breathing frequency by exercise rhythm. Journal of Physiology (London), 272,553-561.

Becker A. 11. (1979). Traction for клее-flexion contractures. Physical Therapy, 59(9), 1114. Beekman S.. Block В H (1975). The relationship of calcaneal varus to hamstring

tightening. Current Podiatry, 24(11), 7-10.

BeetJ.A., Groswald D.E., Lunges \i.W. (1984). Alterations in the mechanical properties of

peripheral nerve following crush injury. Journal of Biomechanics, 17(3), 1S5-I93.

Beel J.A., Stodieck L.S, Lunges \i.W. (1986). Structural properties of spinal nerve roots:

Biomechanics. Experimental Neurology, 91(1), 30-40,1986.

Beighton P. (1971). How contortionists contort. Medical Times, 99(4), 181-187. BeightonP, Grahame R.. Bird! I. (1983). Hypermobility of joints. Berlin; Springer-Verlag. Beighton P., Horan FT (1969). Orthopaedic aspects of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 51B(3), 444-453.

Beighton P., Horan, FT. (1970). Dominant inheritance in familial generalized articular

hypermobility. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 52B(1), 145-147.

Beighion P.M.. Salomon L. Soskolne C.L. (1973). Articular mobility in an African

population. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 32(5), 413-418.

Bell R.D., Hoshizaki ТВ. (1481). Relationship of age and sex with range of motion of

seventeen joint actions in humans. Canadian Journal of Applied Sports Science, 6(4), 202-206.

Ветке A. (1897). Zur Lewre von der Spondylitis deformans - Beitrag zur wis- senschaftlicher Medizin. Festschrift an der 59 Versammlung deutscher Naturforscher und Arete, Braundschweig, Germany.

Benjamin B.E. (19781. Are you tense? New York: Pantheon Books. Benson H. (1980). The relaxation response. New York: Avon Books.

Borland T, Addison R.G. (1972). Living with your bad back. New York: St. Martin's Press. Bernstein D.A., Borkovec T.D. (1973). Progressive relaxation training. Champaign, IL:

Research Press.

Beriolasi L., De Grandis D.. Bongiovanni L.G., Zanette G.P.. Gasperini M. (1993), The

influence of muscular lengthening on cramps. Annals of Neurology, 33(2), 176-180.

Bick E.M. (1961). Aging in the connective tissues of the human musculoskeletal system.

Geriatrics, 16(9), 448-453.

Biesterfeldl H.J. (1974). Flexibility program. International Gymnast, 16(3), 22-23. Bigland-Ritchie В., Woods JJ. (1976). Integrated electromyogram and oxygen uptake

during positive and negative work. Journal of Physiology (London), 260(2), 267-277.

Billig И. E, (1943). Dysmenorrhea; The result of a postural defect. Archives of Surgery,


Billig HE. (1951). Facial stretching, journal ofPhysical and Mental Rehabilitation, 5(1),


Billig //.£., Lowendahl E. (1949). Mobilization of the human body. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Bird H. (1979). Joint laxity in sport. MediSport: The Review of Sports Medicine, 1(5), 30-31.

Bird H.A., Brodie D.A., Wright V. (1979). Quantification of joint laxity. Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, 18,161-166,

Bird H.A.. Caiguneri M.. Wright V. (1981). Changes in joint laxity occurring during pregnancy. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 40(2), 209-212.                                                                                                                        -.-.■ ,■,............. ■,-■■,

Bird Н.А., Hudson A., Eastmond С.J., Wright V (1980). Joint laxity and osteoarthritis: A radiological survey of female physical education specialists. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 14(4), 179-188.

Biro E, Gewanter H.I... Вамп J. (1983). The hypermobility syndrome. Pediatrics, 72(5), 701-706.

Bissell M.J.. Hall H.G., Parry G. (1982). How does the extracellular matrix direct gene expression 1 Journal of Theoretical Biology, 99(1), 31-6S.

B\au H (1989). How fixed is the differentiated state? Lessons from heterokaryons. Trends in Genetics, 5(8), 268-272.

Block R.A., Hess LA., Timpano E. I'., SerloC. (1985). Physiological changes in foot in pregnancy. Journal of the American Podialric Medical Association, 75(6), 297-299.

Bloom W., Fawcetl D.W. (1986). A textbook of histology (11th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Bloomfield J., Blanksby B.A. (1971). Strength, flexibility and anthropometries measurements. Australian Journal of Sports Medicine, 3(10), 8-15.

Bloomfield J.. Blanksby B.A., Ackland T.R., Elliott B.C. (1985). The anatomical and physiological characteristics of pre-adolescent swimmers, tennis players and поп competitors. The Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 17(3), 19-23.

Bobbert M.F.. Hollander A P., HitijingP.A. (1986). Factors in delayed onset muscular soreness of man. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 18( 1), 75-81.

Bogduk N. (1984). Applied anatomy of the thoracolumbar fascia. Spine, 9(9), 164-170.

Bohannon R.. Gajdovsik R., LeVeau B. (1985). Contribution of pelvic and lower limb motion to increase in the angle of passive straight leg raising. Physical Therapy, 65(4), 474-476.

Bompa T. (I990|. Theory and methodology of training (2nd ed.). Dubuque, 1A: Kendall/Hunt.

Bond СМ., Hensal F.J.. TorgJ.S. (1986). Aprelimmary study on the measurement of static and dynamic motion at the glen oh umeral joint. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 14(1), 12-17.

Boocock M.G, Carbutt G., Linge G., Reilfy, Г. Troup J.D.G. (1990). Changes in stature following drop jumping and post-exercise gravity inversion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22(3), 385-390.

Boocock M.G., Garbult G, Reilly, T, Linge G., Troup J.D.G. (1988). The effects of gravity inversion on exercise-induced spinal loading. Ergonomics, 31(11), 1631-1637.

Boone D.C., AzenS.P (1979). Normal range of motion of joints in male subjects. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 61 A(5), 756-759.

Booth F.W., Gould \Y. (1975). Training and disuse on connective tissue. In J. Wilmore and J. Keough (Eds.), Exercise and sports sciences reviews (Vol. 3, pp. 83-112). New. York: Academic Press.

Borg Т.К., Caul field JB. (1980). Morphology of connective tissue in skeletal muscle. Tissue & Cell, 12(1), 1 97-207.

Borkovec T.D, Sides J.К (1979). Critical procedural variables related to the physiological effects of progressive relaxation: A review. Behavior Research and Therapy, 17(2), 119-125.

Bonus J., Van Roy P., SantensJ.P.. Haentjens A. (1987). Optimal duration of static stretching exercises for improvement of coxo-femoral flexibility. Journal of Sports Sciences, 5(1), 39-47.

Bornstein P., Byers PH. (1980). Collagen metabolism. Current Concepts. Kalamazoo: The Upjohn Company.

Boscardin J.В.. Johnson P. Schneider H. (1989). The wind-up, the pitch, and pre-season conditioning. SportCare & Fitness, 2(1), 30-35.

Boscoe С Tarkka I., Komi P. V. (1982). Effects of elastic energy and my electrical potenti-ation of triceps surae during stretch-shortening cycle exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 3(3), 137-140.

Bosien W.R., Staples DS., Russell S.W. (1955). Residual disability following acute ankle sprains. /ournaJ of Bone and Joint Surgery, 37A(6), 1237-1243.

Botsford D.J., Esses S.!., Ogilvie-Harris D.J. (1994). In vivo diurnal variation in interver-tebral disc volume and morphology. Spine, 19(8), 935-940.

Bowen W.I3. (1934). Applied kinesiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

Bowker J.H., Thompson E.B. (1964). Surgical treatment of recurrent dislocation of the patella. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 46A{7), 1451-1461.

Bozemun M, Mackie J., Kaufman» D.A (1986). Quadriceps, hamstring strength and flexibility. Track Technique, 96(Summer), 3060-3061.

Brand R. A. (1986). Knee ligaments: A new view. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 108(2), 106-110.

Brani J. (1987). See Dick run: Videotape analysis of your running form can make you a more efficient runner. Runner's World, 22(7), 28-35.

Brendslrup P. (1962). Late edema after muscular exercise. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 43(8), 401л105.

Brewer В., Wubben R.. Carrera G. (1986). Excessive retroversion of the glenoid cavity. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 68A(5), 724-731.

Brewer, V. Hinsan M (1978). Relationship of pregnancy to lateral knee stability. Medicine and Science in Sports, 10(1), 39.

Br'mcat \f, VersiE., MonizC.F, Magos A., de TrqffordJ., Studd J.W.W. (1987). Skin collagen changes in postmenopausal women receiving different regimens of estrogen therapy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 70(1), 123-127.

BrodelimA. (1961). Osteoarthrosis of the lalar joints in footballers and ballet dancers. Acta Orlhopaedica Scandinavica, 30(4), 309-314.

Brodie DA.. Bird И.А., Wright V (1982). Joint laxity in selected athletic populations. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 14(3), 190-193.

Brady DM (1995). Running injuries. )n J.A. Nicholas and E.B. Herefiman (Eds.), The lower extremity and spine in sports medicine (2nd ed.. vol. 2, pp. 1475-1507). St. Louis: Mosbv.

BroerMR. (1966). Efficiency of human movement (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Sau riders.

Hroer MR.. Gales N.R. (1958). Importance of various body measurements in performance of toe touch test. Research Quarterly, 29(3), 253-257.

Brooks G.A., Fahey Т.О. (1987). Fundamentals of human performance. New York: Macmillan.

Browne AO., Hoffmeyer P., Tanaka S., An K.N., Morrey B.F. (1990). Glenohumeral elevation studied in three dimensions. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 72B(5), 843-845.

Browse N.L.. YoungA.E.. Thomas ML. (1979).The effect of bending on canine and human arterial walls and on blood flow. Circulation Research, 45(1), 41л7.

BrvantS. (1984). Flexibility and stretching. The Physician and SportsmerJicine, 12(2), 171.

Brvant WM( 1977). Wound healing. Clinical Symposia, 29(3), 1-36.

Biyant-Greenwood G.D., Schwabe С (1994). Human relaxins: Chemistry and biology. Endocrine Reviews, 15(1), 5-26.

BuergerA.A. (1984). A non-redundant taxonomy of spinal manipulative techniques suitable for physiologic explanation. Manual Medicine, 1(2), 54-58.

Bailer AJ. (1968). Spinal reflex action. Physiotherapy, 54(6), 208-210.

Bunn J.W. (1972). Scientific principles of coaching (2nd ed.), Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Burgener M. (1991). How to properly miss with a barbell. National Strength and Conditioning Journal, 13(3), 24-25.

Burke D.. Hagbarth K.E., Lqfstedt L (1978). Muscle spindle activity in man during shortening and lengthening contraction. Journal of Physiology (London), 277(April), 131-142.

Burke E.J.. Humphreys J.H.L. (1982). Fit to exercise. London: Pecham Books.

Burke R.E.. Rudomin P. (1978). Spinal neurons and synapses. In E.R. Kandel (Ed.), Handbook of physiology: The nervous system. Cellular biology of neurons (pp. 877-944). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.

Burkett LN. (1970). Causative factors in hamstring strain. Medicine and Science in Sports, 2(1), 39-42.

Burkett L.N. (1971). Cause and prevention of hamstring pulls. Athletic Journal, 51(6), 34.

Burkett L.V. (1975). Investigation into hamstring strains: The case of the hybrid muscle. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 3(5), 228-231.

BurkhardtS. (1982), The rationale for joint mobilization. In G.W. Bell (Ed.), Professional preparation in athletic training (pp. 101-106). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. j.. .-.

BwkyL.R., Dobell И.С. Farrell B.J. (1961). Relations of power, speed, flexibility and certain anthropometries measures of junior high school girls. Research Quarterly, 32(4), 443- 448.

Buroker K.C., Schwane J.A. (1989). Does postexercise static stretching alleviate delayed muscle soreness? The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 17(6), 65-83.

Bush J. (1978). Dynamic track & field. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Вшоп D. (1957). Extension of the Kraus-Weber lest. Research Quarterly, 28(3), 210-217.

Byers PH, Pyerilz R.E.. UittoJ. (1992». Research perspectives in heritable disorders of connective tissue. Matrix, 12(4), 333-342.

ByrdR.J. (1973). The effect of controlled, mild exercise on (he rate of physiological aging in rats. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 13(1), 1-3.

Byrd S.K. (i992). Alterations in the sarcoplasmic reticuium: A possible link to exercise-induced muscle damage. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24(5), 531- 536.

Byrnes W.C., Clarhon P.M. (1986). Delayed onset muscle soreness and training. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 5(3), 605-614.

Byrnes W.C., CUirkson P.M, White J.S., Hsieh S.S., Frykman PJI. Maughan R.J. (1985). Delayed onset muscle soreness following repeated bouts of downhill running. Journal of Applied Physiology, 59(3). 710-713.

С ail'lie! R. (1966). Shoulder pain. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

CaiilietR. (1977). Soft tissue pain and disability. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

Cailliei R. (1981). Low back pain syndrome (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

Cailliei R. (1985). Gravity inversion therapy. Postgraduate Medicine, 77(6), 270 and 274.

Caiiliet R. (.1988). Low back pain syndrome (4th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

Cailliei R. (1991). Shoulder pain (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

Cailliei R , Cross L. (1987). The rejuvenation strategy. Garden City, NY: Doubleday

Calais-Germain В. (1993). Anatomy of movement. Seattle: Eastland Press.

Caldwel! IV.E, S-loloy H.C. (1993). Anatomical variations in the female pelvis and their effect in labor with a suggested classification. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 26(4), 479-505.

Calguneri JI/, Bird II..4., Wright V. (1982). Changes in joint laxity occurring during pregnancy. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 41(2), 126-128.

Campbell E.JM. (1970). Accessory muscles. In E.J.M. Campbell E. Agostoni, and J.N.Davis (Eds.), The respiratory muscles mechanics and neural control (pp. 181-193). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Cantu R.C. (1982). Sports medicine in primary care. Lexington, MA: Collamore Press.

Cantu R.I, GradinA.J. (1992). Myofascial manipulation: Theory and clinical application. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.

CapadayC, Stein R.B. (1987a). Amplitude modulation of the soleus H-ceflex in the human during walking and standing. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 21 (2-4), 91-104.

Capaday С Stein R.B. (1987b). Difference in the amplitude of the human soleus H-reflex during walking and running. Journal of Physiology (London), 392(November), 513-522.

Car/sen F., Knappels G.G . Buchlhal F. (1961). Uitrastructure of the resting and contracted striated muscle fiber at different degrees of stretch. Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology, 10(11,95-118.

Carlson F.D.. Wilkie D.R. (1974). Muscle physiology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

CarrlcoM. (1986). Yoga with a chair. Yoga Journal, 68(Mav/June), 45-51.

Carter C, Sweetnam R. (1958). Familial joint laxity and recurrent dislocation of the patella. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 40B(4>, 664-667.

Carter С Sweetnam R. (1960). Recurrent dislocation of the patella and the shoulder. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 42B(4), 721-727.

Carter C, Wilkinson J. (1964). Persistent joint laxity and congenital dislocation of the hip. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 46B( I), 40-45.

Cassidy J.D., QtionJ.A., Lafrance L.J.. Ymg-Hmg K. (1992). The effect of manipulation on pain and range of motion in the cervical spine: A pilot study. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 15(8). 495-500.

Cassidy S.S.. Schwiep F. (1989). Cardiovascular effects of positive end-expiratory pressure. In S.M. Scharf and S.S. Cassidy (Eds.), Heart-lung interactions in health and disease (pp. 463-506). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Cavagna G.A., Dusman В, Margaria R. (1968). Positive work done by a previously stretched muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology, 24(1), 21-32.

Cavagna G A, Sttibene FP. Margaria R. (1965). Effect of negative work on the amount of positive work performed by an isolated muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology, 20(1), 157-160.

Chaitow L. (1990). Osteopathic self-treatment. Rochester, VT: Thorsons.

Chandler T.J.. Kibler W.B.. Uhl T.L, Woolen В.. KiserA.. Stone E. (1990). Flexibility comparisons of junior elite tennis players to other athletes. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 18(2), 134-136.

Chang O.K., Buschbacher L.P., Edlich R.F (1988). Limited joint mobility in power lifters. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 16(3), 280-284.

Chapman E.A., de Vries H.A., Swezey R. (1972). Joint stiffness: Effects of exercise on young and old men. Journal of Gerontology, 27(2), 218-221.

Chapron D.J., Besdine R.W. (1987). Drugs as obstacle to rehabilitation of the elderly: A primer for therapists. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 2(3), 63-81.

ChatfieldS.J., Byrnes WC, tally D A., Rowe S.E. (1990). Cross-sectional physiologic profiling of modern dancers. Dance Research Journal, 22(1), 13—20.

Cheng ICY, Chan P.S.. Hui P.W. (1991). Joint laxity in children. Journal of Pedialric Orthopaedics, 11(6), 752-756.

Cherry D.B. (1980). Review of physical therapy alternatives for reducing muscle contrac-ture. Physical Therapy, 60(7), 877-881.

Child A. H. (1986). Joint hypermobiiity syndrome: Inherited disorder of collagen synthesis. Journal of Rheumatology, 13(2), 239-243.

Chinn C.J., Priest J.D.. Kent B.E (1974). Upper extremity range of motion, grip strength, and girth in highly skilled tennis players. Physical Therapy, 54(5), 474-483.

Chowraski P.K., Pemrick S.M., Pepe FA. (1989). LC2 involvement in the assembly of skeletal myosin filaments, Biochemicaet Biophysica Acta (24) 990(2), 216-223.

Christian G.F.. Slanton G.J., Sissons D., How H.Y, Jamison J., Alder В., Fullerton M, Funder J.W. (1988). Immu no re-active ACTH, ??-endorphin, and Cortisol levels in plasma following spinal manipulative therapy. Spine, 13(12), 1411-1417.

Christiansen С. Baum C. (1991). Performance deficits as sources of stress. In С Christiansen and C. Baum (Eds.), Occupational therapy: Overcoming human performance deficits (pp. 68-96). Thorofare, MJ: Slack.

ChujoyA.. Manchester P.W. (Eds.). (1967). The dance encyclopedia. New York: Simon and Schuster.

CmlloJ.V, ZarinsB. (1983). Biomechanics of the musculo-tendinous unit. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 2(1), 71-85.

Clark J.M., Hagerman F.C., GelfandR. (1983). Breathing patterns during submaximal and maximal exercise in elite oarsmen. Journal of Applied Physiology, 55(2), 440-446.

Clarke H.fl. (1975). Joint and body range of movement. Physical Fitness Research Digest, 5,16-18.

Clarkson P.M., Byrnes W.C., Gillison £., Harper E. (1987). Adaptation to exercise-induced muscle damage. Clinical Science, 73(4), 383-386.

Clarkson P.M., Tremblay I (1988). Rapid adaptation to exercise induced muscle damage. Journal of Applied Physiology, 65(1), 1-6.

Скак MJ., Eston R.G. (1992). Delayed onset muscle soreness: Mechanisms and management. Journal of Sports Sciences, 10(4), 325-341.

Clemente CD. (1985). Anatomy of the human body (30th ed.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

Clippinger-Robertson К (1988). Understanding contra indicated exercises. Dance Exercise Today, 6(1), 57-л0.

Cohen D.B.. Mont M.A., Campbell K.R., Vogelstein B.N.. Loewy J.W. (1994). Upper extremity physical factors affecting tennis serve velocity. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 22(6), 746-750.

Colachis S.C.. Strohm B.R. (1965). Relationship of time to varied tractive force with constant angle of pull. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 46(11), 815-819.

Committee on the Medical Aspects of Snorts of the American Medical Association and the National Federation. (1975). Muscle soreness can be eliminated. Athletic Training, 10(1), 42.

Condon S.A. (\ 983). Resislance to muscle stretch induced by volitional muscle contraction. Unpublished master's thesis. University of Washington, Seattle.

Condon S.A., Hution R.S. (1987). Soleus muscle electromyo-graphic activity and ankle dor-siflexion range of motion during four stretching procedures. Physical Therapy, 67(1), 24- 30.

Conruy R.T.W.L., Mills J.N (1970). Human circadian rhythms. London: Churchill. A contortionist. (J882). Lancet, 1, 576.

Cook E.E.. Gray VL.. Stn'inar-S'ogiie E., Medeiws J. (1987). Shoulder antagonistic strength ratios: A comparison between college level baseball pitchers and nonpitchers. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 8(9), 451-461.

Cooke P. (1985). A periodic cytoskeletal lattice in striated muscle. In J.W. Shay (Ed.), Cell and muscle mobility ("Vol. 6, pp. 287-313). New York: Plenum Press.

Coplam С W. (1978). The conservative treatment of low back pain. In A.J. Heflet and D.M.G. Lee (Eds.), Disorders of the lumbar spine (pp. 145-182). Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Corbel/ M. (1972). The use and abuse of massage and exercise. The Practitioner, 208(1243), 136-139.

Co/bin С В (1980). JI textbook of motor development (2nd ed.). Dubuque, 1A: Brown.

Corbin СВ.. Dowel! L.J., Lindsey R., Tolson H. (1978). Concepts in physical education (3rd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Brown.

Corbin СВ.. Noble L (1980). Flexibility: A major component of physical fitness. Journal of Physical Education and Recreation, 51(6), 23-24, 57-60.

Corlett E.N., Ekiund J A.E., Reilly Т.. TroupJ.D.G. (1987). Assessment of workload from measurements of stature. Applied Ergonomics, 18(1), 65-71.

Cornelius W.L. (1983). Stretch evoked EMG activity by isometric contraction and sub- maximal concentric contraction. Athletic Training, 18(2), 106-109.

Cornelius W.L (1984). Exercise beneficial to the hip but questionable for the knee. NSCA Journal, 6(5), 4(M1.

Cornelius WL, Hagetnann R. W.. Jackson A. W. (1988). A study on placement of stretching Within a workout. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 28(3), 234-236.

Cornelius IV. L. Hinson MM. (1980). The relationship between isometric contractions of hip extensors and subsequent flexibility in males. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 20(1), 75-80.

Couch J. (1979). Runner's World yoga book. Mountain View, CA: World.

Counsilman J.E. (1968). The science of swimming. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Councilman J.E. (1977). The complete book of swimming. New York: Antheneum.

Cousins N. (1979). Anatomy of an illness as perceived by the patient. New York: Norton.

Coville CA. (1979). Relaxation in physical education curricula. The Physical Educator, 36(4), 176-181.

Cowan P.M., McGavin S.. North A.C. (1955). The polypeptide chain configuration of collagen. Nature, 176(4492), 1062-1064.

Craig T.T. (Ed.). (1973). American medical association comments in sports medicine. Chicago: American Medical Association.

Cramer L.M., McQueen СИ. (J990). Overuse injuries in figure skating. 1л MJ. Casey, С Foster, and E.G. Hixson (Eds,), Winter sports medicine (pp. 254-268). Philadelphia: Davis.

Crawford H.J., JullG.A. (1993). The influence of thoracic posture and movement on range of arm elevation. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 9(3), 143-148.

Crisp J. (1972). Properties of tendon and skin. In Y.C. Yung N. Perrone, and M. Aniker (Eds.), Biomechanics: Its foundation and objectives (pp. 141-180). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Crosman L.J., Chatemivert S.R.. IVeisberg J. (1984). The effects of massage to the hamstring muscle group on the range of motion. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 6(3), 168-172.

Cummings G.S. (1984). Comparison of muscle toother soft tissue in limiting elbow extension. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 5(4), 170-174.

Cummings G.S.. IVI man LJ. (1992). Remodeling of dense connective tissue in normal adult tissues. In D.P. Currier and R.M. Nelson (Eds.), Dynamics of human biologic tissues (pp. 45-73). Philadelphia: Davi

Cummings M.S.. Wilson V.E., Bird E.I. (1984). Flexibility development in sprinters using

EMG biofeedback and relation training. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 9(3), 395л105.

Cureton Т.К. (1930). Mechanics and kinesiology of swimming. Research Quarterly, 1(4),


Cyriax.J. (1978). Textbook of orthopaedic medicine: Vol. 1. Diagnosis of soft tissue lesions

(8th ed.). London; BailliereTindall.

Daleiden S. (1990). Prevention of falling: Rehabilitative or compensatory interventions?

Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 5(2), 44—53.

Danforlh D.N. (1967). Pregnancy and labor: From the vantage point of the physical

therapist. American Journal of Physical Medicine. 46( 1). 653-658.

Danforlh D.N., Ellis AM. (1963). Mid-forceps delivery: a vanishing art? American Journal

of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 86(1). 29-37.

Daniel! tl.W. (1979). Simple cure for nocturnal leg cramps. New England Journal of

Medicine, 301(4), 216.

Davies C.THf. Barnes C. (1972). Negative (eccentric) work. 1. Effects of repeated

exercise. Ergonomics, 15(1), 3-14.

Davies C.T.M., Young K. (1983). Effects of training at 30% and 100% maximal isomelric force (MVC) on the contractile properties of the triceps surae in man (Abstract). Journal of

Physiology (London), 336,31 P.

Davies G.J. Kirkendal/ D.T, Leigh D.H., l.ul M.L. Reinhald Т.К., Wilson P.K. (1981). Isokinetic characteristics of professional football players: I. Normative relationships between quadriceps and hamstring muscle group and relative to body weight. Medicine and Science in

Sports and Exercise. 13(2). 76-77.

Davis E.C.. Logan G.A., McKinney W.C. (1965). Biophysical values of muscular activity

with implications for research (2nd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Brown.

Davis L (1988). Stretching a point. Hippocrates, 2(4), 90-92.

DavisonS. (1984). Standing: JI good remedy. Journal of the American Medical Association, 252(24), 3367.

Davson H. (1970). A textbook of general physiology (4th ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Day R.K.. Ashmore C.R., Lee Y.B. (1984). The effect of stretch removal on muscle weight and proteolytic enzyme activity in normal and dystrophic chicken muscles. Muscle & Nerve, 7(6), 482-485.

Day R W. Wildermuth B.P. (1988). Proprioceptive training in the rehabilitation of lower extremity injuries. In W.A. Grana (Ed.), Advances in sports medicine and fitness (pp. 241-258).

Chicago: Year Book Medical.

Dean E. (1988). Physiology and therapeutic implications of negative work: A review.

Physical Therapy, 68(2), 233-237.

Debevoise N.T. Hyatt G.W, andTownsendGB. (1971). Humeral torsion in recurrent shoulder dislocations: A technic of determination by x-ray. Clinical Orthopaedics and

Related Research, 76(May), 87-93.

de Jong R.H. (1980). Defining pain terms. Journal of the American Medical Association,

244(2), 143.

Delitio R.S.. Rose S.J., Apts D.W(\ 987). Electromyographic analysis of two techniques for

squat lifting. Physical Therapy. 67(9). 1329-1334.

DeLucaC. (1985). Control properties of motor units. Journal of Experimental Biology, 115

(March). 125-136.

Denny-Brown D., Doherty M.M. (1945). Effects of transient stretching of peripheral nerve.

Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 54(2), 116-122.

De Puky P. (1935). The physiological oscillation of the length of the body, Acta

Orthopaedics Scandinavica, 6(4), 33S-347.

De Troyer A.. LoringS.H. (1986). Action of the respiratory muscles. In S.R. Geiger(Ed.), Handbook of physiology: Sec. 3. The respiratory system: Vol. 3. Mechanics of breathing, part 2.

(pp. 443-461). Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society.

de Vries H.A. (1961a). Electromyography observation of the effect of static stretching upon muscular distress. Research Quarterly, 32(4), 468-479.                                                                                                         

de Vries Н.А. (1961b). Prevention of muscular distress after exercise. Research Quarterly, 32(2), 177-185.

de Vries H.A. {(962). Evaluation of static stretching procedures for improvement of flexibility. Research Quarterly, 33(2), 222-229.

de tries H.A. (1963). The «looseness» factor in speed and 02, consumption of an anaerobic 100-yard dash. Research Quarterly, 34(3), 305-313.

de Vries HA. (1966). Quantitative electromyographic investigation of the spasm theory of muscle pain. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 45(3), 139-134.

de Vries H.A. (1975). Physical fitness programs: Does physical activity promote relaxation? Journal of Physical Education and Recreation, 46(7), 52-53.

de Vries H.A. (1985). Inversion devices: Potential benefits and precautions. Corporate Fitness & Recreation, 4(6), 24-27.

de Vries H.A. (I9S6). Physiology of exercise (4th ed.). Dubuaue, ГА: Brown. de Vries HA., Adams CM. (1972). EMG comparison of single doses of exercise and meprobamate as to effects on muscular relaxation. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 5Щ), 130-141.

de Vries H.A., Cailliel R. (1985). Vagotonic effect of inversion therapy upon testing neuro-muscular tension. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 64(3), 119-129.

de Vries H.A., WisweH R.A., Bulbulion R., Moritani T. (1981). Tranquilizer effect of exercise. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 60(2), 57-66.

DeyoR.A. (1983). Conservative therapy for low back pain: Distinguishing useful from useless therapy. Journal of the American Medical Association, 250(8), 1057-1062.

DeyoR.A., Walsh N.E., Martin D.C., Schoenfeld L.S., RamamurlhyS. (1990). A controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and exercise for chronic low back pain. New England Journal of Medicine, 322(23), 1627-1634.

DickF.W. (1980). Sports training principles. London: Lepus Books. DickR.W.. Cavanagh RR. (1987). An explanation of the upward drift in oxygen uptake during prolonged sub-maximal downhill running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19(3), 310-317.

Dickenson R. V (111%). The specificity of flexibility. Research Quarterly, 39(3), 792-794. OiMatteo M.R., DiNicola D.D (1982). Achieving patient compliance: The psychology of the medical practitioner's role. New York: Pergamon.

DiMatleo M.R., Prince LM, TaranlaA. (1979). Patients'perceptions of physicians'behavior: Determinants of patient commitment to the therapeutic relationship. Journal of Community Health, 4(4), 280-290.

DIRaimondo C. (1991). Overuse conditions of the foot and ankle. In G.J. Sammarco (Ed.), Foot and ankle manual (pp. 260-275). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

DiTullio M., Wilczek L, Paulus D., Kiriakatis A., Pollack M. Eisenhardt J. (1989). Comparison of hip rotation in female classical ballet dancers versus female nondancers. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 4(4), 154-158.

Dix D.J., Eisenberg B.R. (1990). Myosin mRNA accumulation and myofibrillogenesis at the myotendinous junction of stretched muscle fibers. Journal of Cell Biology, 111(5, Pt. 1), 1885-1894.

Dix D.J., Eisenberg B.R. (1991a). Distribuiion of myosin mRNA during development and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Developmental Biology, 143(2), 422-426.

Dix D.J., Eisenberg В R. (1991b). Redistribution of myosin heavy chain mRNA in the midregion of stretched muscle fibers. Cell and Tissue Research, 263(1), 61-69.

Dobeln. See Allander et al. (1974). *"■ Dobrin P.B. (1983). Vascular mechanics. In J.T. Shepherd and F.M. Abboud (Eds.), The handbook of physiology: Sec. 2. The cardiovascular system III: Vol. 3. Peripheral circulation and organ blood flow, Pt. 1 (pp. 65-102). Bethesda. MD: American Physiological Society. Dobson C.B. (1983). Stress: The hidden adversary. Ridgewood, NJ: Bodgen & Son. Docherly D.. Bel! R.D. (1985). The relationship between flexibility and linearity measures in boys and girls 6-15 years of age. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 11(5), 279-288.

Doheriy К (1985). Track and field omnibook (4th ed.). Swarthmore, PA: Tafmop. 1 DominguezR.il. (1980). Shoulder pain in swimmers. Physician and Sports medicine, 8(7),


DominzuezRH.. GaidaR. (1982). Total bodv training. New York: Warner.

Donalelli R., Owens-Burkhart H. (1981). Effects of immobilization on the extensibility of peri articular connective tissue. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 3(2), 67-72.

Donisch E. W., Basmajian J. V. (1972). Electromyography of deep back muscles in man. American Journal of Anatomy, 133(1), 25-36.

DonTigny RL (1985). Function and pathomechanics of the sacroiliac joint. Physical Therapy, 65(1), 35л1.

Doran D.M.L. Newel! D.J. (1975). Manipulation in the treatment of low back pain: A mul-licentre study. British Medical Journal, 2,161-164.

Douglas S. (1980. February-March). Physical evaluation of the swimmer. Presented at the First Annual Vail Sportsmedicine Symposium, Vail, CO.

Downer A.H. (1988). Physical therapy procedures: Selected techniques (4th ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles С Thomas.

Dowsing G.S. (1978). Partner exercise. Coaching Women's Athletics, 4(2), 18-20.

Dubrovskii V.I. \, 1990}. The effect of massage on alhletes'cardio respiratory systems ico- (clin-physiological research). Soviet Sports Review, 25( 1), 36-38.

Dummer G.M., Vaccaro P., Clarke D.H. (1985). Muscular strength and flexibility of two female master swimmers in the eighth decade of life. Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 6(4), 235-237.

Dvorak J.. Kramlin P., Muhlemcwn D., Walchli B. (1992). M use ul о skeletal complications. In S. Haldeman (Ed.), Principles and practice of chiropractic (pp. 549-577). Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Dvorkin L.S. (1986). The young weightlifter: Development of flexibility. Soviet Sports Review, 21(31, 153-156.

Dye A,A. (1939). The evolution of chiropractic: Its discovery and development. Philadelphia: Author.

Dyson G.H.G. (1977). The mechanics of athletics. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Ehbeling C.B., Clarkson P.M. (1989). Exercise-induced muscle damage and adaptation. Sports Medicine, 7(4), 207-234.

Ecker T. (1971). Track & field dynamics. Los Altos, CA: Tafnews Press. ..

Egan S. (1984). Fitness & health: A holistic approach. Ottawa: Crimcare.

Egelman Е.И., Francis N.. Derosier D.J. (1982). F-actin is a helix with a random variable twist. Nature, 298(5870), 131-135.

Ehrhart В. (1976). Thirty Russian flexibility exercises for hurdlers. Athletic Journal, 56(7), 38-39,96.

EinkaufD.K., Gohdes ML, Jensen G.M., Jewell M.J. (1986). Changes in spinal mobility with increasing age in women. Physical Therapy, 67(3), 370-375.

Eklund J.A.E., Gorki! E.N. (1984). Shrinkage as a measure of the effect of load on the spine. Spine, 9(2), 189-194.

Ектап В., Ljungqiiisi K.-G., Stein U. (1970). Roentgeno- logic-photo metric method for bone mineral determinations. Acta Radiofogica, IO(Juiy}, 305-325.

EkstrandJ., Gillquist J. (1982). The frequency of muscle tightness and injuries in soccer. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 10(2), 75-78.

Efairand,!., Gillquist.J. (1983). The avoidability of soccer injuries. Internationa! Journal of Sports Medicine, 4(2), 124-128.

Eldred E., Hut ton R.S.. Smith J.I. (1976). Nature of the persisting changes in afferent discharge from muscle following its contraction. Progressive Brain Research, 44,157-170.

Eidren H.R. (1968). Physical properties of collagen fibers. In D.A. Hall (Ed.), international review of connective tissue research (Vol. 4, pp. 248-283). New York: Academic Press.

Elliott D H. (1965). Structure and function of mammalian tendon. Biological Review, 40(3), 392-421.

Ellis C.G., Mathieu-Costello 0., Potter RF, MacDonaldlC, Groom A.C. (1990). Effect of sarcomere length on total capillary length in skeletal muscle: In vivo evidence for longitudinal stretching of capillaries. Microvasculai Research, 40(1), 63-72.

Ellis J. (1986). Shinsplints too much, too soon. Runners World, 21 {3), 50-53, 86.

Emmons M. (1978). The inner source: A guide to meditative therapy. San Luis Obispo, CA:

Engesvik F. (1993). Leg movements in the breaststroke. Swimming Technique, 29(4), 26-27.

Enoka R.M (1988). Neuromechanical basis of kinesiology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Einyre В.. Abraham L (1984). Effects of three stretching techniques on the motor pool excitability of the human soleus muscle (Abstract). In W. Roll (Ed.), Abstracts of research papers 1984 (p. 90). Reston, VA: American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation.

Einyre B.R., Abraham ID. (1986). Gains in range of ankle dorsiflexion using three popular stretching techniaues. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 65(4), 189-196.

Etnyre B.R., Abraham LD (1988). Antagonist muscle activity during stretching: A paradox re-assessed. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 20(3), 285-289.

Einyre B.R., Lee EJ- (1987). Comments on proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 58(2), 184-188.

Evans D.P, Burke M.S., Lloyd K.H.. Roberts E.E.. Roberts. CM. (1978). Lumbar spinal manipulation on trial. 1. Clinical assessment. Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, 17(1), 46-53.

Evans G.A., Ifarcastle P. Frenyo AD. (1984). Acute rupture of the lateral ligament of the ankle. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 66B(2), 209-212.

Evati M.L., IVolfS.L. Segal R.L. (1989). Modification of human spinal stretch reflexes: Preliminary studies. Neuroscience Leiters, 105(3), 350-355.

Everly G.S. (1989). A clinical guide to the treatment of the human stress response. New York: Plenum Press.

Everly G.S., Spollen M-. HackmanA., Kobran E. (1987). Undesirable side-effects and self-regulatory therapies. In Proceedings of the eighteenth annual meeting of the Biofeedback Society of America (pp. 166-167). Boston.

Evjenth O., Hamberg J- (1984). Muscle stretching in manual therapy. A clinical manual. Alfta, Sweden: Alfta Rehab.

Fairbank J.C.T, Pynsent PB., van PoortvlielJ.A., Phillips II. (1984). Influence of anthro­pometric factors and joint laxity in the incidence of adolescent back pain. Spine, 9(5), 461-464.

Falket J.E. (1988). Swimming injuries. In J.E. Falkel and J.C. Murphy (Eds.), Shoulder injuries (pp. 477-503). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Falls H.B.. Humphrey D. (1989). Dr. Falls and Dr. Humphrey reply. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 17(6), 20,22.

Fardy f.S. (1981). Isometric exercise and the cardiovascular system. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 9(9), 43-56.

Fa/fan H.F. (1973). Mechanical disorders of the low back. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

Far/an H.F. (1978). The biomechantcal advantage of lordosis and hip extension for upright activity. Spine, 3(4), 336-342.

FarreiU., Twomey L. (1982). Acute low back pain: Comparison of two consecutive treatment approaches. Medical Journal of Australia, 1(4), 160-164.

Faucrel B.H. (1980). Biomechanics of the pelvis. In A collection of monographs on the bio-mechanics of the pelvis (pp. 43-75). Des Moines, IA: American Chiropractic Association.

Faulkner J.A., Brooks S-V. OpiieckJ.A. (1993). Injury to skeletal muscle fibers during contractions: Conditions of occurrence and prevention. Physical Therapy, 73(12), 911-921.

FmvcetlD.W. (1986). A textbook of histology (11th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Federation of Straight Chiropractic Organizations (FSCO) (n.d.). Statement on chiropractic standard of care/patient safety. Clifton, NJ: Author.

Feii EM.. Berenter Я (1993). Lower extremity tennis injuries: Prevalence, etiology, and mechanisms. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 83(9), 509-522.

Fellabaum J. (1993). The effect of eye positioning on bodily movement. Digest of Chiropractic Economics, 36(1), 14-17.

Ferlic D. (1962). The range of motion of the «normal» cervical spine. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, HO(February), 59-65.

FickR. (1911). Handfuch der Anatomic und Mechanik der Gelenke (Vol. 3). Jena: Gustav Fischer.

Finkelstein H. (1916). Joint hypotonia. Nero York Medical Journal, 104(20), 942-944.

Finkehtein //.. Roos R. (1990). Ontario study raises doubt about stretching. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 18(1), 48л9.

Finneson BE. (1980). Low back pain. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Fisher A.C.. Domm M.A., WuestD.A (1988). Adherence to sports-injury rehabilitation programs. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 16(7), 47-51.

FiskJ. W. (1975). The straight-leg raising test-Its relevance to possible disc pathology. New Zealand Medical Journal, 81(542), 557-560.

FiskJ.W. (1979). A controlled trial of manipulation in a selected group of patients with low back pain favoring one side. New Zealand Journal of Medicine, 90(645), 288-291.

FiskJ.lt'.. Rose Я S. (1977). A (jractical guide to management of the painful neck and back. Springfield, IL: Charles С Thomas.

FittS.S. (1988). Dance kinesiology. New York: Schirmer Books.

Fitzgerald J.G (1972). Changes in spinal stature following brief periods of static shoulder loading (1AM Report No. 514). Farnborough: Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine.

Fixx J. (1983). Is stretching (yawn) everyihing you hoped it would be? Running Times, 80( September), 66.

Fleischman F..A. (1964). The structure and measurement of physical fitness. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Fleisg GS., Andrews J.R., Dillman С J., Fscamilla R.F (1995). Kinetics of baseball pitching with implication about injury mechanisms. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 23(2), 233-239.

Flint MM (1964). Selecting exercises. Journal of Health, Physical education, and Recreation, 35(2), 19-23,74.

Flinlney F.W., Hirst D.G. (I9?8). Cross-bridge detachment and sarcomere «give» during stretch of active frog's muscle. Journal of Physiology (London), 276, 449-465.

Flood J.. NauerlJ. (1973). Shin splints. Scholastic Coach, 42(5), 28, 30, 102-103.

Floyd IV.F. Silver P.U.S. (1950). Electromyographic study of patterns of activity of the anterior abdominal wall muscles in man. Journal of Anatomy, 84(2), 132-145.

Floyd W.F., Silver P.H.S, (1951). Function of the erectores spinae in flexion of the trunk. Lancet, 1,133-134.

Floyd W.F., Silver P.H.S. (1955). The function of the erectores spinae muscles in certain movements and postures in man. Journal of Physiology (London), 129, 184-203.

Follan LM. (1981). Lilias and your life. New York: Collier Books.

Foreman Т.К., Linge К (1989). The importance of heel compression in the measurement of diurnal stature variation. Applied Ergonomics, 20(4), 299-300.

Foreman Т.К., TroupJ.D.G. (1987). Diurnal variations in spinal loading and the effects on stature: A preliminary study of nursing activities. Clinical Biomechanics, 2(1), 48-54.

Forssberg F. (1899). Om vexlingar i kroppslangden hos kavallerirekryler. Militar Halsovard, 24,19-28.

Гоч'/сгЛ.№:(1973). Relief of cramp. Lancet, 1(7794),99.                              " ' '

Fouler PJ., Messieh S.S. (19S7). isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries in athletes. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 15(6), 553-557.

Francis К. Т. (1983). Delayed muscle soreness: A review. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 5(1), 10-13.

Frankel V.H., Burnstein A.M. (i974). Biomechanics of the locomotor system. In CD. Ray (Ed.), Medical engineering (pp. 505-515). Chicago: Yearbook Medical.

Frankeny J.R., Hotly R. G, Ashmore C.R. (1983). Effects of graded duration of stretch on normal and dystrophic skeletal muscle. Muscle & Nerve, 6(4), 269-277.

Franzblau C, Faru B. (1981). Elastin. In E.D. Hay (Ed.), Cell biology of extracellular matrix (pp. 75-78). New York: Plenum Press.

Franiini-Armslrong С (1970). Details of the I-band structure revealed by localization of ferritin. Tissue Cell, 2(2), 327-338.

Frederick E.C. {19S2). Stretching things a bit. Running, 8(3), 65.

Freeman M.A.R., Dean MR./;., Hanham I.li'F. (1965). The etiology and prevention of functional instability of the foot. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 47B(4), 678-685.

FreivaldsA. (1979). Investigation of circadian rhythms on select psychomotor and neurological functions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Frekany G.A., Leslie D.K. (1975). Effects of an exercise program on selected flexibility measurements of senior citizens. The Gerontologist, 15(2), 182-183.

Friberg T.R., Weinreb R.N. (1985). Ocular manifestations of gravity inversion. Journal of the American Medical Association, 253(12), 1755-1757.

Friden J. (1984a). Changes in human skeletal muscle induced by long-term eccentric exercise. Cell Tissue Research, 236(2), 365-372.

Friden J. (1984b). Muscle soreness after exercise: Implications of morphological changes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 5(2), 57-66.

Friden J., Lieber R.L (1992). Structural and mechanical basis of exercise-induced muscle injury. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24(5), 521-530.

Friden J., Seger J„ Ekblom B. (1988). Sublethal muscie fibre injuries after high-tension anaerobic exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 57(3), 360-368.

Friden J., Seger M, Sjoslrom M. Ekblom B. (1983). Adaptive response in human skeletal muscle subjected to prolonged eccentric training. Internationa! Journal of Sports Medicine, 4(3), 177-184.

Friden J., Sfakianos PN, Hargens A R (1986). Muscle soreness and intramuscular fluid pressure: Comparison between eccentric and concentric load. Journal of Applied Physiology, 61(61,2175-2179.

Friden J., Sfakianos P.N, Hargem A.R , Akesan W.H. (1988). Residual muscular swelling after repetitive eccentric contractions. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 6(4), 493-498.

Friden J.. Sjoslrom M, Ekblom B. (1981). A morphological study of delayed muscie soreness. Experimentia, 37(5), 506-507.

Friden J., Sjoslrom M, Ekblom В (1983). Myofibrillar damage following intense eccentric exercise in man. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 4(3), 170-176.

Fried R. (1987). The hyperventilation syndrome. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Friedmann L.W., Gallon L (1973). Freedom from backaches. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Frost ii.M. (1967). Introduction to biomechanics. Springfield, IL: Charles С Thomas.

Fvjiwara M, Basmajian J V. (1975). Electromyographic study of the two-joint muscles. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 54(5), 234-242.

Fulton A.B.. Isaacs W.B. (1991). Titin: A huge, elastic sarcomeric protein with a probable role in morphogenesis. BioEssays, 13(4), 157—161.

Funatsu Т., Higuchi II., IshiwataS. (1990). Elastic filaments in skeletal muscle revealed by selective removal of titin filaments with plasma gelsolin. Journal of Cell Biology, 110(1), 53-62.

Fursl D.O., Osborn M, Nave R., Weber K. (1988). The organization of titin filaments in the half-sarcom ere revealed by monoclonal antibodies in immunoelectron microscopy: A map often nonrepetitive epitomes starting at the Z-line extends close to the M line. Journal of Cell Biology, 106(5), 1563-1572.

GabbardC. Tandy R. (1988). Body composition and flexibility among prepubescent males and females. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 14(4), 153-159.

GaidaR. See D.R. Murphy (1991).

Gajdosik R, Lusin G. (1983). Hamstring muscle tightness: Reliability of an active-knee- extension test. Physical Therapy, 63(7), 1085-1089.

Galin M.A., MclvorJ.W., MagruderG.B. (1963). Influence of position on intraocular pressure. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 55(4), 720-723.

Galley P.M., Forsier A.L. (1987). Human movement: An introductory text for physiotherapy students. Melbourne: Churchill Livingstone.

Garamvolgyi N. (1971). The functional morphology of muscle. In K. Laki (Ed.), Contractile proteins and muscie (pp. 1-%). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Garde RE. (1988). Cervical traction: The neurophysiology of lordosis and the rheological characteristics of cervical curve rehabilitation. In D. D. Harrison (Ed.), Chiropractic: The physics of spinal correction (pp. 535-659). Sunnyvale, CA: Author.

GarfmS.R., TiptonC.M., Mubarak S.J.. Woo S. L-Y., Hargens A.R., Akeson W.H {1981). Role of fascia in maintenance of muscle tension and pressure. Journal of Applied Physiology, 51(2),3J7-320.

Garhammer J. (1989b). Weight lifting and training. In C.L. Vaughan (Ed.), Biomechanics of sport (pp. 169-211). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Publishers.

Garrelt W.. Bradley TV»'., ByrdS., Edgerlon V.R., Gollnkk P. (1989). Basic science perspectives. In J.W. Frymoyer and S.L. Gordon (Eds.), New perspectives in low back pain (pp. 335-372). Park Ridge, !L: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

GartiJ. (1986). Exercise do's & don'ts: Side bends. Dance Exercise Today, 4(4), 34—35.

Gaskell W.H (1877). On the changes of the bloodstream of the muscles through stimulation of their nerves. Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 11,360-402.

Gaihercole LJ, Keller A. (1968). Early development of crimping in rat tail tendon. Micron, 89,83-89.

Gaughran J.A. (1972). Advanced swimming. Duhuque, IA: Brown.

Cavmans F. (1980). Die Bedeutung der Atemtypen fur Mobilisation der Wirbelsauie. Manuell'e Medizin, 18,%.

Gehbert R. (1966). Raul Gelabert's anatomy for the dancer. New York: Danad.

Gelardi ТА. (n.d.). What is the difference between CCE and SCASA? Unpublished paper.

George G.S. (1980). Biomechanics of women's gymnastics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Germain N.W., Blair S.N. (1983). Variability of shoulder flexion with age, activity and sex. American Corrective Therapy Journal, 37f6), 156-160.

Gie! D. (1988). Women's weightlifting: Elevating a sport to I. world-class status. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 16f4), 163-170.

Gifford LS. (1987). Orcadian variation in human flexibility and grip strength. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 33(1), 3-9.

Gilliam T.B.. Viltanacci J.F., Freedson P.S., SadyS.fi (1979). Isokinetic torque in boys and girls age 7 to 13: Effect of age, height, and weight. Research Quarterly, 50(4), 599-609.

Gladden Kl.H. (1986). Mechanical factors affecting the sensitivity of mammalian muscle spindles. Trends in Neuroscience, 13(4), 295-297.

GlazerRM (1980). Rehabilitation. In R.B. Happcnstatl(Ed.), Fracture treatment and healing (pp. 1041-1068). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Gold Я (1987). Album #1: The philosophy. Gladwyne, PA: Chiro Products.

Goldspink G. (1968). Sarcomere length during post-natal growth and mammalian muscle fibres. Journal of Cell Science, 3(4), 539-548.

Goldspink G. (1976). The adaptation of muscle to a new functional length. In D.J.Anderson and B. Matthews fEds.), Mastication fpp. 90-99). Brislol, England: Wright and Sons.

Goldspink C. Scull A., Loughna P.P., Wells D.J., Jaenicke Т., Gerlach G.F. (1992). Gene expression in skeletal muscle in response to stretch and force generation. American Journal of Physiology, 262(31), R356-R363.

GoldspinkG. TabarvC, TabarvJ.C, TardieuC, TardieuG. (1974). Effect of denervation on the adaptation of sarcomere number and muscle extensibility to the functional length of the muscle. Journal of Physiology (London), 236(3), 733-742.

Goldspink G., Williams Т.Е. (1979). The nature of the increased passive resistance in muscle following immobilization of the mouse soleus muscle. Journal of Physiology (London), 289,55P (Proceedings of the Physiological Society December 15-16,1978).

Goldstein J.D.. Berger P.E.. Windier G.E., Jackson DAV(1981). Spine injuries in gymasts and swimmers. An epidemiologic investigation. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 19(5), 463-468.

Goldlhwaii J.E. (1941). Body mechanics in health and disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

GolubLJ. (1987). Exercises that alleviate primary dysmenorrhea. Contemporary Ob/Gyn, 29(5), 51-59.

GolubLJ-. ChristaldiJ. (1957). Reducing dysmenorrhea in young adolescents. Journal of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 28(5), 24-25,59.

GolubLJ.. LangW.R., Menduke H. (1958). Dysmenorrhea in high school and college girls: Relationship to sports participation. Western Journal of Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 6 (3), 1 6 3 - 1 6 5.                                              

Golub L.J., Menduke И., Lang WR. (1968). Exercise and dysmenorrhea in young teenagers: A 3-year study. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 32(4), 508-511.

Goods D.J., Van Haven J. (1982). Loss of patellar and achilles tendon reflexes in classical ballet dancers. Archives of Neurology, 39(5), 323.

Goode J.D., Theodore B.M (1983). Voluntary and diurnal variation in height and associated surface contour changes in spinal curves. Engineering in Medicine, 12(2), 99-101.

Goodridge J.P. (1981). Muscle energy technique; Definition, explanation, methods of procedure. Journal of the American Osteopath ic Association, 81(4), 67-72.

Gordon A M. Huxley A.E. Julian F.J. (1966). The variation in isometric tension with sar-comere length in vertebrate muscle fibres. Journal of Physiology (London), 184,170-192.

Gordon CM, Klein B.A. (1987). The benefits of weight training for hamstring strains. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 77(10), 567-569.

Gosline J.M. (1976). The physical properties of elastic (issue. In D.A. Hull and D.S. Jackson (Eds.), International review of connective tissue research (Vol. 7, pp. 211-257). New York: Academic Press.

Gotlib A.C.. ThielH, (1985). A selected annotated bibliography of (he core biomedical literature pertaining to stroke, cervical spine, manipulation and head/neck movement. Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association, 29(2), 80-89.

Gould D. (1987). Understanding attrition in children's sport. In D. Gould and M.R. Weiss (Eds.), Advances in pediairic sport sciences (pp. 61-85). Champaign, 1L: Human Kinetics.

Gould G.M., Pyle WL. (1896). Anomalies and curiosities of medicine. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Gowitzke B.A., Milner M. (1988). Understanding the scientific basis of human movement (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Grace T.G (1985). Muscle imbalance and extremity injury: A perplexing relationship. Sports medicine, 2(2), 77-82.

Gracoveisky S., Farfan H.F., Lamy С (1977). A mathematical model of the lumbar spine using an optimized system to control muscles and ligaments. Orthopaedics Clinics of North America, 8(1), 135-153.

Gracovetsky S,, Kary M, Pilchen L Levy S.. Said R.B. (1989). The importance of pelvic tilt in reducing compression stress in the spine during flexion-extension exercises. Spine, 14(4), 412-417.

Graham С E. (1987). Plantar fasciitis and the painful heel syndrome. Medicine and Sport Science, 23,99-104.

Graham G. (1965). Cramp. Lancet, 2, 537.

GrahameR (1971). Joint hypermobility-clinical aspects. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 64(June), 692-694.

Grahams R., Jenkins J.M (1972). Joint hypermobility-Asset or liability? Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 31(2), 109-111.

Grana W.A., MorelzJ.A. (1978). Ligamentous laxity in secondary school athletes. Journal of the American Medical Association, 240(18), 1975-1976.

Granit R. (1962). Muscle tone and postural regulation. In K. Rodahl and S.M. Horvath (Eds.), Muscle as tissue (p. 190). New York; McGraw-Hill.

Grant M.E., Prockop P.D., Darwin J. (1972). The biosynthesis of collagen. New England Journal of Medicine. 286(4), 194-199.

Grassino A , Goldman M.D., Mead J, Sears ТА. (1978). Mechanisms of the human diaphragm during voluntary contraction statics. Journal of Applied Physiology, 44(6), 829-839.

Gray M.L., Pizsanelli A.M.. Grodzinsky A.J., Lee R.C. (1988). Mechanical and physio-chemical determinants of the chondrocyte biosynthetic response. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 6(6), 777-792.

GrayS.D., StaubN.C. (1967). Resistance to blood flow in leg muscles of dog during tetanic isometric contraction. American Journal of Physiology, 213(3), 677-682.

Greene W.B.. Heckman J.D. (1994). The clinical measurement of joint motion. Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Greenman P.E. (1989). Principles of manual medicine. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Greey G.W. (1955). A study of the flexibility in five selected joints of adult males ages 18 to 71. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

GreippJ.F. (1986). The flex factor. Swimming Technique, 22(3), 17-24.

Grieve D.W. (1970). Stretching active muscles. Track Technique, 42(December), 1333-1335.

Grieve G.P. (1988). Common vertebral joint problems (2nd ed.). London: Churchill Livingstone.

Grieve G.P. (1991). Mobilisation of the spine (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Griffith H. W. /1 986). Complete guide to sport injuries. Los Angeles: Body Press.

Grab D. (1983). Common disorders of muscles in the aged. In W. Reichel (Ed.), Clinical aspects of aging (2nd ed., pp. 329-343). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Grodzinsky A J. (1983). Electromechanical and physiochemical properties of connective tissue. CRC Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, 9(2), 133-199.

Givdzinsky A.J. (1987). Electromechanical transduction and transport in the extracellular matrix. Advances in Microcircvlation, 13,35-46.

Gradzimky A.J., Lipshitz H.. Glimcher M.J. (1978). Electromechanical properties of articular cartilage during compression and stress relaxation. Nature, 275(5679), 448-450.

Gross J. (1961). Collagen. Scientific American, 204(5), 120-133.

Gurewiixch A D., O'Neill M. (J944). Flexibility of healthy . children. Archives of Physical Therapy, 25(4), 216-221.

Gurry M., PappasA.. Michaels J.. Maher P.. Shakman A.. Goldberg R.. Rippe J. (1985). A comprehensive preseason fitness evaluation for professional baseball players. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 13(6), 63-74.

Gustavsen R. (1985). Training therapy prophylaxis and rehabilitation. New York: Thieme.

Gutman G.M., Herbert C.P, Broun S.R. (1977). Feldenkrais versus conventional exercises for elderly. Journal of Gerontology, 32(5), 562-572.

Gutmann E. (1977). Muscle. In C.E. Finch and I. Hayflick (Eds.), Handbook of the biology of aging (pp. 445-469). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Gutmann E., Schiaffmo S., Handikova К (1971). Mechanism of compensatory hypertrophy in skeletal muscle of the rat. Experimental Neurology, 31(3), 451л64.

Gutmann G. (1983). Injuries to the vertebral artery caused by manual therapy. Manuelle Medizin, 21,2-14.

Haas M. (1990). The physics of spinal manipulation. Part IV. A theoretical consideration of the physician impact force and energy requirements needed to produce synovial joint cavitation. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 13(7), 378-383.

Hafiek J. (1970). Stretch injury of peripheral nerve: Acute effects of stretching on rabbit nerve. Journal of Bone and Join! Surgery, 52B(2), 354-365.

HalbertsmaJ.P.K., Goeken L.N.H. (1994). Stretching exercises: Effect on passive extensibility and stiffness in short hamstrings of healthy subjects. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75(9), 976-981.

Hatdeman S. (1978). The clinical basis for discussion of mechanisms of manipulative therapy. In l.M. Korr (Ed.), The neurobiologic mechanisms in manipulative therapy (pp. 53- 75). New York: Plenum Press.

Haldeman S. (1983). Spinal manipulative therapy: A status report. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 179( October), 62-70.

Haley S.M., Tada W.L.. Carmichael EM. (1986). Spinal mobility in young children: A normative study. Physical Therapy, 66(11), 1697-1703.

Hall A.C.. Urban J.P.G.. Gehl K..4. (1991). Effects of compression on the loss of newly synthesized proteoglycans and proteins from cartilage explants. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 286,20-29.

Hall DA. (1981). Gerontology: Collagen disease. Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 10(l),23-55.

Halvorson G.A. (1989). Principles of rehabilitating sports injuries. In C.C. Teitz (Ed.), Scientific foundations of sports medicine (pp. 345-371). Philadelphia: Decker.

Hamilton W.G (1978a). Ballet and your body: An orthopedist's view. Dance Magazine, 52(2), 79.

Hamilton W.G. (1978b). Ballet and your body: An orthopedist's view. Dance Magazine, 52(4), 126-127

Hamilton W.C. (1978с). Ballet and your body: An orthopedist's view. Dance Magazine, 52(7), 86-87.

Hamilton W.C (1978d). Ballet and your body: An orthopedist's view. Dance Magazine, 52(8), 84-85.

Hamilton W.C. Hamilton L.H.. Marshall P., Molnar M. (1992). A profile of the muscu-loskefctal characterise!cs of elite professional ballet dancers. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 20(3), 267-273.

HanusS.H.. Homer TD., Barter D //'(1977). Vertebral artery occlusion complicating yoga exercises.Archives ofNeurology, 34(September), 574-575.

Hardaker W.T., Erickson L, Myers А/. (1984). The pathogenesis of dance injury. In C.G. Shell (Ed.1, The dancer as athlete (pp. 12-13). Champaign, II.: Human Kinetics.

Hardy /.. (1985). Improving active range of hip flexion. Research Quarterly for Exercise ani} Sport. 56(2). П1-П4.

Hardy L. Lye R., Heathcote A. (1983). Active versus passive warm up regimes and flexibility. Research Papers in Physical Education, 1(5), 23-30.

Harris FA. (1978). Facilitation techniques in therapeutic exercise. In J.V. Basmajian (Ed.), Therapeutic exercise (3rd ed., pp. 93-137). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Harris H., Joseph .!. (1949). Variation in extension of the metacarpophalangeal and inter-phalangeal joints of the thumb. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 31B(4), 547-559.

Harris M.L. (1969a). A factor analytic study of flexibility. Research Quarterly, 40(1), 62-70.

Harris M.L. (1969Ы. Flexibility. Physical Therapy, 49(61, 591-601.

Hartley-O'Brien S.J. (1980). Six mobilization exercises for active range of hip flexion. Research Ouarterlv for Exercise and Sport, 51(41, 625-635.

Harvey C, Benedelli I,., Hosaka L, Valmassy R.L. (1983). The use of cold spray and its effect on muscle length. Journal of the American Podiatry Association, 73(121, 629-632.

Harvey V.R, Scotl FA'. (1967). Reliability of a measure of forward flexibility and its relation to physical dimensions of college women. Research Quarterly, 38(11, 28-33.

Hatfield FC (1982). Learning to stretch for strength and safety. Muscle Fitness, 43(12), 24-25,193-194.

Hay JO. (1985). The biomechanics of sports techniques (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Haywood K.M. (1980). Strength and flexibility in gymnasts before and after menarche. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 14(41, 189-192.

Hebbetinck (1988). Flexibility. In A. Dirix И.О. Knuttgen, and K. Tittef (Eds.), The Olympic book of sports medicine (pp. 213-2171. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.

Heiser T.M., Weber, ./., Sullivan G, Clare P.. Jacobs R.R. (1984). Prophylaxis and management of hamstring muscle injuries in intercollegiate football players. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 12(51, 368-370.

Helm P. (1985). Physiotherapy and electromyography in muscle cramp. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 19(41, 230-231.

Heilig D. (1969). Illustrative points in technique. In J.M. Hoag W.V. Cole, and S.G. Bradford (Eds.1, Osteopathic medicine (pp. 197-2031. New York: McGraw-Hill.

HengM.K., BaiJ.X., Talian, N.J.. Vincent W.J., Reese S.S., Shaw S.. Holland GJ. (1992). Changes in cardiovascular function during inversion, international Journal of Sports Medicine, 13(l),69-73.

Hennessy L, Watson A. W.S. (1993). Flexibility and posture assessment in relation to hamstring injury. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 27(41, 243-246.

Henry J.H. (19861, Commentary. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 14(11, 17.

Henry J. P. (1951). Studies of the physiology of negative acceleration (AFTech. Report #59531. Dayton, OH: U.S. Air Force Air Material Command, Wright-Patterson AFB.

HerbisonG.J.. Graziani V. (1995). Neuromuscular disease: Rehabilitation and electrodiag- nosis. 1. Anatomy and physiology of nerve and muscle. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 76(5), S3-S9.

Hertling D.M., Jones D. (19901. Relaxation. In R.M. Kessler and D. Hertling (Eds.1, Management of common musculoskeletal disorders (2nd ed., pp. 144-163). Philadelphia: Lip-piucott.

Herzog W., Couway P.J.. Kmvchuk G.N., Zhang Y., Hosier KM. (1993). Forces exerted durng spinal manipulative therapy Spine, 18(9), 1206-1212.                                            

Hevward V.H. (1984). Designs for fitness. Minneapolis: Burgess.

HickokRJ. (1976). Physical therapy. In F.V. Steinberg (Ed.), Cowdry's the care ofthe geriatric patient (5th ed., pp. 420-432). St. Louis: Mosby.

Highet W.B, Sanders F.K (1943). The effects of stretching nerves after suture. British Journal of Surgery, 30(120), 355-371.

HiUA.R., Adams J.M.. Parker BE, Rochester D.F. (1988). Short-term entrainment of ventilation to the walking cycle in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology 65(2), 570-578.

Hill A.V. (1948). The pressure developed in muscle during contraction. Journal of Physiology (London), 107,518-526.

И ill A. V. (1961). The heat produced by a muscle after the last shock of tetanus. Journal of Physiology (London), 159(3), 518-545.

Hill C. Weber К (1986). Monoclonal antibodies distinguish titins from heart and skeletal muscle. Journal of Cell Biology, 102(3), 1099-1108.

Hilyer J.C.. Brown КС, Sirles A.T.. Peoples (,. (1990). A flexibility intervention to reduce the incidence and severity of joint injuries among municipal firefighters. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 32(7), 631-63'7.

Hindle R.J., Murray-Leslie С (1987). Diurnal stature variation in ankylosing spondylitis. Clinical Biomechanics, 2(3), 152-157.

Hinrichs R.N. (1990). Whole body movement: Coordination of arms and legs in walking and running. In J.M. Winters and S.L.-Y. Woo (Eds.), Multiple muscle systems: Biomechanics and movement organization (pp. 694—705). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Hinrichs R.N. (1992). Case studies of asymmetrical arm action in running. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 8(2), 111-128.

Hinterbuchner С (1980). Traction. In J.B. Rogoff(Ed.), Manipulation, traction, and massage (2nd ed., pp. 184-210). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Hi re he H., RaffW.K. GrunD (1970). The resistance to blood flow in the gastrocnemius of Ihe dog during sustained and rhythmical isometric and isotonic contractions. European Journal of Physiology, 314,97-112.

Hoeger W.W.K. (1991). Principles and labs for physical fitness and weilness. Englewood, CO: Morton.

Hoeger W.W.K. Hopkins PR (1992). A comparison ofthe sit and reach and the modified sit and reach in Ihe measurement of flexibility in women. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 63(2), 191-195.

Hoeger WW.K, Hopkins D.R., Button S., Palmer T.A. (1990). Comparing the sit and reach with ihe modified sit and reach in measuring flexibility in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 2(2), 156-162.

Hoeger W.W.K, Hopkins D.R., Johnson LC. (1991). Muscular flexibility: Test protocols and national flexibility norms for the modified sit-and-reach test, total body rotation test, and shoulder rotation test. Addison, IL: Novel Products Figure Finder Collection.

Hoehkr FK, Tobis IS. (1982). Low back pain and its treatment by spinal manipulation: Measures of flexibility and asymmetry. Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, 21,21-26.

Hoehler F.K, Tobis J.S., Buerger A.A (1981). Spinal manipulation for low back pain. Journal ofthe American Medical Association, 245(18), 1836-1838.

Hoen Т.!.. Bracken C.E. (1970). Peripheral nerve lengthening. L Experimental. Journal of Neurosurgery, 13(1), 43-62.

Hoeve C.A.J., Flory P.J. (1974). The elastic properties of elastin. Biopolymers, 13(4), 677-686.

Holland G./(1968). The physiology of flexibility. A review ofthe literature. Kinesiology Review, 1,49-62.

Holland G.J., Davis EL (1975). Values of physical activity (3rd ed.), Dubuque, 1A: Brown.

Holly R.G., Barnett 1С, Ashmore C.R.. Taylor R.G., Mole P.A. (1980). Stretch-induced growth in chicken wing muscles: A new model of stretch hypertrophy. American Journal of Physiology, 238(Cell Physiology 7),C62-C71.            

Holmer I, Gullstrand L. (1980). Physiological responses to swimming with a controlled frequency of breathing. Scandinavian Journal of Sports Sciences, 2(1), 1-6.

Holt LE. (n.d.). Scientific stretching for sport (3-s). Halifax, Nova Scotia: Sport Research.

Hott L.E., Smith R.K. (1983). The effects of selected stretching programs on active and passive flexibility. In J. Terauds (Ed.), Biomechanics in sport (pp. 54-67). Del Mar, CA: Research Center for Sports.

Holt I.E., Travis T.M., Okila T. (1970). Comparative study of three stretching techniques. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 31(2), 611-616.

Hooper A.C.B. (1981). Length, diameter and number of ageing skeletal muscle fibres. Gerontology, 27(31, 121-126.

Hoover H.V. (1958). Functional techni с Academy of Applied Osteopathy Yearbook 1958, 47-51.

Hopkins DR. (1981). The relationship between selected anthropometri с measures and and- sit-reach performance. Paper presented at the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance National Measurement Symposium, Houston, TX.

Hopkins DR., Hoeger W.W.K. (1986). The modified sit and reach test. In Hoeger W.W.K. (Ed.), Lifetime physical fitness and wellness: A personalized program (pp. 47-48). Engiewood, CO: Morton.

Hopkins D.R., MurrahB., Hoeger W.W.. Rhodes R.C. (1990). Effects of low-impact aerobic dance on the functional fitness of elderly women. The Gerontologist, 30(2), 189-192.

Horowiis R. (1992). Passive force generation and titin isoforms in mammalian skeletal muscle. Biophysical Journal, 61 (2), 392-398.

florowiis R., Kempner E.S., Bisher M.E.. Podolsky R.J. (1986). A physiological role for titin and nebulin in skeletal muscle. Nature, 323(6084), 160-163.

Horowits R., Podolsky R.J. (1987a). The positional stability of thick filaments in activated skeletal muscle depends on sarcomere length: Evidence for the role of titin filaments. Journal of Cell Biology, 105(5), 2217-2223.

Horowiis R., Podolsky R.J. (1987b). Thick filament movement and the effect of titin filaments in activated skeletal muscle. (Abstract). Biophysical Journal, 51(2, Pt. 2), 219a.

Hossler R (1989). To bend or not to bend. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 17(6), 20.

Hough T. (1902). Ergographic studies in muscular soreness. American Journal of Physiology, 7(1), 76-92.

Houk 1С. Henneman E. (1967). Responses of Golgi tendon organs to forces applied to muscle tendon. Journal of Neurophysiology, 30,466-481.

Houk 1С.. Singer J.J., Goldman MR. (1971). Adequate stimulus for tendon organs with observations on mechanics of ankle joint. Journal of Neurophysiology, 34(6), 1051-1065.

HowelU.N., ChilaA.G., FordG.. DavidD., Gales T. (1985). An electromyographic study of elbow motion during postexercise muscle soreness. Journal of Applied Physiology, 58(5), 1713-1718.

Howse A.J. (1972). Orthopedist's aide ballet. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 89,52-63.

Hsieh C. Walker J.M.. Gillis К (1983). Straight-leg raising test; Comparison of three instruments. Physical Therapy, 63(9), 1429-1433.

Ни DM. Kimura S., Maruyama К (19861. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gei electrophoretic studies of connectin-like high molecular weight proteins of various types of vertebraie and invertebrate muscles. Journal of Biochemistry (Tokyo), 99,1485-1492.

Hvbley-Kozey С L (1991). Testing flexibility. In E.D. MacDougall H.A. Wenger, and H.J. Green (Eds.), Physiological testing of the high-performance athlete (2nd ed., pp. 309-359). Champaign, !L: Human Kinetics.

Hubley-Kozey C.L.. Sianish W.D. (1990). Can stretching prevent athletic injuries? Journal of Musculoskeletal Medicine, 7(3), 21-31.

Hull M. (1990-1991). Flexible ankles: Faster swimming. Swimming Technique, 27(3), 23-24.

Hunt Т.К.. Winkle W.V. (1979). Normal repair. In Т.К. Hunt and J.E. Dunphy (Eds.), Fundamentals of wound management (pp. 2-67). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Hupprkh EL., Sigerseth P.O. (1950). The specificity of flexibility in girls. Research Quarterly, 21 (1), 25-33.

HussainSN.A., Rabinovitch В., Macklem P.Т.. Pardy R.L. (1985). Effects of separate rib cage and abdominal restriction on exercise performance in normal humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 58(6), 2020-2026.

Huxley A. F(1984). Response to «Is stepwise sarcomere shortening an artifact?» Nature, 309(5970), 713-714.

Huxley A. F. (1986). Comments on quantal mechanisms in cardiac contraction. Circulation Research, 59, 9-14.

Huxley A.F., Niedergerke R. (1954). Structural changes in muscle during contraction; Interference microscopy of living muscle fibres. Nature. 173(4412), 971-973.

Huxley A.F., Peachey L.D. (1961)- The maximum length for contraction in vertebrate striated muscle. Journal of Physiology, 156(1), 150-165.

Huxley H£. (1957). The double array of filaments in cross-striated muscle. Journal of Biophysics and Biochemical Cytology, 3(5), 631-648.

Huxley H.F. (1967). Muscle cells. In I. Brachet and A. Mirsky (Eds.), The cell (pp. 367-481). New York: Academic Press.

Huxley I I.E., Hanson J (1954). Changes in the cross-striations of muscle during contraction and stretch and their structural interpretation. Nature, 173(4412), 973-976.

Iashvili A.V. (1983). Active and passive flexibility in athletes specializing in different sports. Soviet Sports Review, 18( 1), 30-32.

Ice R. (1985). Long-term compliance. Physical Therapy, 65(12), 1832-1839.

Ikai M, Fukunaga T. (1970). A study on training effect on strength per unit cross- sectional area of muscle by means of ultrasonic measurement. European Journal of Applied Physiology ,28,173-180.

Ingber D.E., I'rusty D., Frangioni J.V.. Cragoe E.J.. Lechene C. Schwartz M.A. (1990). Control of intracellular pH. and growth by fibronectin in capillary endothelial cells. Journal of Cell Biology, 110(5), 1803-1811.

Inglis B.D,, Eraser В., Pen/old B.R. (1979). Commission of inquiry into chiropractic #62, Royal Commission of Inquiry, Wellington, New Zealand: Hasselberg Government Printers.

Jnman V.T., Sounders J.B., Abbol LC. (1944). Observations on the functions of the shoulder joint. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 26(1), 1-30.

Inoue S., Leblond C.R (1986). The microfibrils of connective tissue: 1. Ultrastructure. American Journal of Anatomy, 176(2), 121-138.

International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee {1983). Nomina anatomica (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins.

International Chiropractors Association. (1993). Policy handbook & code of ethics. Arlington, VA: Author.

Internationa! Dance-Exercise Association, (n.d.). Guidelines for convention presenters. San Diego: Author.

Irrgang J.I. (1993). Rehabilitation. In F.H. Fu and D.A. Stone (Eds.), Sports injuries: Mechanisms, prevention, treatment (2nd ed., pp. 81-95). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

ItayS., GanelA., Hvr&szowski H., Ferine I (1982). Clinical and functional status following lateral ankle sprains. Orthopaedic Review, 11(5), 73-76.

Itoh Y, Susuki Т., Kimura S, Ohashi K., Higuchi II., Sawada H., Shimizu Т., Shibata M, Maruyama K. (1988). Extensible and less-extensible domains of connectin filaments in stretched vertebrate skeletal muscle as detected by immunofluorescence and i mm u no electron microscopy using monoclonal antibodies. Journal of Biochemistry (Tokyo), 104, 504—508.

Ivensar B.K.S. (1979). Light on yoga. New York: Schocken Books.                        "

Jack/nan R.V. (1963). Device to stretch the Achilles tendon. Journal of the American Pbysicai Therapy Association, 43(10), 729.

Jackson A. IV., Baker A.A. (1986). The relationship of the sit and reach test to criterion measures of hamstring and back flexibility in young females. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 57(3), 183-186.

Jackson A. IV, Langford NJ. (1989). The criterion-related validity ofthe sit and reach test: Replication and extension of previous findings. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 60(4), 384-385.

Jackson C.R, Brown M.D. (1983). Is there a role for exercise in the treatment of patients with low back pain? Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, 179(October), 39-45.

Jackson D.IV, Wiltse L L, Cirincione R.J. (1976). Spondylolysis in the female gymnast. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 117, 68-73.

Jacobs А/. (1976). Ne И гор hy si о logical implications of slow, active stretching. American Corrective Therapy Association, 30(8), 151-154.

Jacobs SJ., Berson B.L. (1986). Injuries to runners: A study of entrants to a 10,000 meter race. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 14(2), 151-155.

Jacobson E. (1929). Progressive relaxation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Jacobson E. (1938). Progressive relaxation (2nd ed.}. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

JahssS.A. (1919). Joint hypotonia. New York Medical Journal, 109(21061,638-639.

J ami L (1992). Golgi tendon organs in mammalian skeletal muscle: Functional properties and central actions. Physiological Reviews, 72(3). 623-666.

Janse J. (1975). History of the development of chiropractic concepts; chiropractic terminology. In M. Goldstein (Ed.], The research status of spinal manipulative therapy (DHEW Publication No. [N1H] 76-998, pp. 25-42). Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Janse J, Mauser R.H., Wells B.F. (1947). Chiropractic principles and technic. Chicago: National College of Chiropractic.

Jaskoviak t'.A. (1980). Complications arising from manipulation of the cervical spine. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 3,213-219.

Jaskoviak P.A., Schafer R.C. (1986). Applied physiotherapy. Arlington, VA: The American Chiropractic Association.

Javurek I. (1982). Experience with hypermobility in athletes. Theorie A Praxe Telesne Vychovv, 30(3), 185.

Jay I.. RappapartS (1983). Hanging out, the upside down exercise book. Mill Valley, CA: Jay Ra Productions.

Jayson M., Sims-Williams H., Young S.. Baddeky H., Collins E. (1981). Mobilization and manipulation for the low back pain. Spine, 6(4), 409-416.

Jenkins R.. Little R.W. (1974). A constitutive equation for parallel-fibered elastic tissue. Journal of Biomechanics, 7(5), 397-л102.

Jervey A.A. (1961). A study of the flexibility of selected joints in specified groups of adult females. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Jesse E.F., Owen D.S., Sagar K.B. (1980). The benign hypermobile joint syndrome. Arthritis Rheumatism, 23(9), 1053-1056.

Jobbins В., BirdH.A., Wright V. (1979). Ajoint hyperextensometer for the quantification of joint laxity. Engineering in Medicine, 8(2), 103-104.

Johns RJ.. Wright V (1962). Relative importance of various tissues in joint stiffness. Journal of Applied Physiology, 17(5), 824-828.

Johnson J.E., Sim FII, Scott S.G. (1987). Musculoskeletal injuries in competitive swimmers. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 62(4), 289-304.

Johnson R.J. (1991). Help your athletes heal themselves. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 19(5), \07-U0.

Jones A. (1975). Flexibility and metabolic condition. Athletic Journal, 56(2), 56-61, 80-81.

Jones D.A., Newham D.J. (1985). The effect of training on human muscle pain and damage. Journal of Physiology (London), 365,76P.

Jones D.A., Newham D.J., Chrkson P.M. (1987). Skeletal muscle stiffness and pain following eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Pain. 30(2), 233-242.

Jones D.A., Newham D.J., Ohietter C. Giamberardino M.A. (1987). Nature of exercise-induced muscle pain. Advances in Pain and Therapy, 10,207-218.

Jones D.A., Rutherford О. M. (1987). Human muscle strength training: The effects of three different training regimes and the nature of the resultant changes. Journal of Physiology (London), 391,1-11.

Jones НИ. (1965). The Vaisalva procedure. Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association, 45(6), 570-572.

Jones L.H. (1964). Spontaneous release by positioning. The DO, 4,109-116.

Jones L.H. (1981). Strain and counterstrain. Colorado Springs: American Academy of Osteopathy.

Junes М.А . Buis J.M., Harris ID. (1986). Relationship of race and sex to physical and motor measures. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63(1),»169-170.

Jones R.E. (1970). A kinematic interpretation of running and its relationship to hamstrings injury. Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 41(8), 83.

Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Editorial Advisory Board. (1969). Exercises. Journal of Clinical Chiropractic, 2(4), 10-15.

Jungueira L.C., Carneiro J.. LongJ.A. (1989). Basic histology (6th ed.). Los Altos, CA: Lange Medical.

Kabai H.. Mcleod M., Holt С (!959). The practical application of proprioceptive neuro-muscular facilitation. Physiotherapy, 45(4),87-92.

Kalenak A., Morehouse C. (1975). Knee stability and knee ligament injuries. Journal of the American Medical Association, 234( 11), 1143-1145.

Kaltenborn KM. (1989). Manual mobilisation of the extremity joints (4th ed.). Oslo, Norway: OlafNorlis Bokhandel.

Kanamam A.. Sibuyii M., Nagai Т., inoue К. Homma I. (1990). Stretch gymnastics training in asthmatic children. In M. Kaneko (Ed.), International series on sport sciences: Vol. 20. Fitness for the aged, disabled, and industrial worker (pp. 178-181). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Kandei E.R., SwarlzJ.H. (1981). Principles of neural science. New York: Elsevier.

Kane M.D., Karl R D., Swain J.H. (1985). Effects of gravity-facilitated traction on inter-vertebral dimensions of the lumbar spine. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 6(5), 281-288.

Kapandji LA. (1974). The physiology of the joints: Vol. 3. The trunk and the vertebral column (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Kapandji I A. (1982). The physiology of the joints: Vol. 1. Upper limb (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Kapandji LA. (1987). The physiology of the joints: Vol. 2. Lower limb (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Karpovich P.V., Sinning W.E. (1971). Physiology of muscular activity (7th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Kawonen J. (1992). Importance of warm-up and cool-down on exercise performance. Medicine in Sport Science, 35,189-214.

Kasteler J„ Kane R.L., Ohe D.M., Thetford C. (1976). Issues underlying prevalence of «doctor-shopping» behavior. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 17(4), 328-339.

KastelicJ., GaleskiA., Baer E. (1978). The multi composite structure of tendon. Connective Tissue Research, 6(1), 11-23.

Kauffman Г (1987). Posture and age. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 2(4), 13-28.

Kauffman T. (1990). Impact of aging-related musculoskeletal and postural changes on fall. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 5(2), 34-43.

Keating J.C. (1995). Purpose -straight chiropractic: Not science, not health care. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 18(6), 416-418.

KellettJ. (1986). Acute soft tissue injuries-A review of the literature. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 18(5), 489-500.

Kelley D.I.. (1971). Kinesiology fundamentals of motion description. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Kendall HO , KendallFP. (1948). Normal flexibility according to age groups. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 30A(3), 690-694.

Kendall HO., KendallF\P.. Bovnton DA. (1970). Posture and pain. New York: Krieger.

Kendall И.О., Kendall F.P., Wadsworih G.E (1971). Muscles testing and function. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Kerner J.A., D Arnica J.C. (1983). A statistical analysis of a group of runners. Journal of the American Podiatry Association, 73(3), 160-164.

Keskinen K.L., Komi P. V. (1991). Breathing patterns of elite swimmers in aerobic/anaero bic loading. Journal of Biomechanics, 215(7), 709.                                                                                                                          

Key J.А. (1927). Hypermobility of joints as a sex linked hereditary characteristic. Journal ofthe American Medical Association, 88(22), 1710-1712.

Khatil T.M., Asfcnir S.S.. Martinez L.M., Waly S.M., RasomoffR.S., RosomcfJH.L. (1992). Stretching in rehabilitation of low-back pain patients. Spine, I7{3), 311-317.

Kim P.S., Santos D.D., O'Neill G, JulienS., Kelm D, Dube M. (1992). The effect of single chiropractic manipulation on sagittal mobility of the lumbar spine in symptomatic low back pain patients. In Proceedings of the 1992 International Conference on Spinal Manipulation. Chicago.

Kim Y.-J., SahR.LY, Grodzinsky A.J., Plaas A.H.K., Sandy ID. (1994). Mechanical regulation of cartilage biosynthetic behavior: Physical stimuli. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, ЗНП). 1-12.

Kimberly P.E. (1980). Formulating a prescription for osteopathic manipulative treatment. Journal ofthe American Osteopalhic Association, 79(8), 146-152.

KingJ.W, Brelsford H.J., Tullos H.S. (1969). Analysis of the pitching arm of the professional baseball pitcher. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 67(November- December), 116-123.

King ,\'.J. (1980). The therapeutic utility of abbreviated progressive relaxation: A critical review with implications for clinical practice. In M Hersen R. Eisler, and P. Miller (Eds.), Progress in behavior modification (Vol. 10). New York: Academic Press.

Kippers V., ParkerA.W. (1984). Posture related to myoelecwic silence of erectores spinae during trunk flexion. Spine, 9(7), 740-745.

KirkJ.A..AnsellB.M.. Bywaters E.G.L (1967). The hypermobility syndrome. Annals ofthe Rheumatic Diseases, 26(5), 419-425.

Kirkebo A., Wisnes A. (1982). Regional tissue fluid pressure in rat calf muscle during sustained contraction or stretch. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 114(4), 551-556. - Kirslein L (1939). Ballet alphabet: A primer for laymen. New York: Kamin.

Kisner C, Colby I..A. (1990). Therapeutic exercise foundations and techniques (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Davis.

Klatn R.M., Goldman R.M., Pinchuk В G, Nelson K.E., Tarr R.S. (1983). The effects of gravity inversion procedures on systemic blood pressure, and central retinal arterial pressure. Journal of American Osteopathic Association, 82(11), 111-115.

Klein K.K. (1961). The deep squat exercise as utilized in weight training for athletics and its effect on the ligaments of the knee. Journal of the Association for Physical and Mental Rehabilitation, 15(1), 6-11.

Klein K.K Allman EL. (1969). The knee in sports. Austin, TX: Pemberton Press.

Klein KK., Roberts C.A. (1976). Mechanical problems of marathoners and joggers: Cause and solution. American Corrective Therapy Journal, 30(6), 187-191.

Klemp P., iearmonth ID. (1984). Hypermobility and injuries in a professional ballet company. British Journal of Sporis Medicine. 19(3), 143-148.

Klemp !', Stevens J.E., Isaacs S. (1984). A hypermobility study in ballet dancers. Journal of Rheumatology, 11(5), 692-696.

Kleynhans AM. (1980). Complications and contraindications to spinal manipulative therapy. In S. Haldeman (Ed.), Modern developments in the principles and practice of chiropractic (pp. 359-384). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Knapp M.E. (1990). Massage. In J.F. Lehmann and B.J.de Lateur (Eds-), Krusen's handbook of physical medicine and rehabilitation (4th ed.., pp. 433-435). Philadelphia; Saundecs.

Knight EL., Davis J.B. (1984). Flexibility: The concept of stretching and exercise. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Knight KL. (1995). Cryotherapy in sport injury management. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Knot! M., Voss D.E. (1968). Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. New York: Harper &Row.

Knultgen H.G. (1986). Human performance in high-intensity exercise with concentric and eccentric muscle contractions. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 7(Suppl. 1), 6-9.

Knungen H.G., Patton J.F., Vugei J.A. (\982). An ergometei for concentric and eccentric muscular exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 53(3), 784-788.

Kobel К.А. (1985). Retinal tear associated with gravity boot use. Annals of Ophthalmology, 17(41.308-310.

Koceja DM.. Burke J.R.. Kamen G. (1991). Organization ofsegmental reflexes in trained dancers. Internationa! Journal of Sports Medicine, 12(3), 285-289.

Koeller №', Funke F, liartman F. (1984). Biomechanical behavior of human intervertebral discs subjected to long lasting axial loading. Biorheology. 21(5), 675-686.

Kokjohn K, Schmict D.M., TrianoJ., Brennan PC. (1992), The effect of spinal manipulation on pain and prostaglandin levels in women with primary dysmenorrhea. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 15(5), 279-285.

Komi Р.Г. (1986). Training of muscle strength and power: Interaction of neuromotoric, Ivypertrophic, and mechanical factors. Journal of Sports Medicine, 7fl), 10-15.

Komi PI'., Boscoe C. (1978). Utilization of stored elastic energy in men and women. Medicine and Science in Sport, 10(41, 261-265.

Komi PA'.. Buskirk £,R (1972). Measurement of eccentric and concentric conditioning on tension and electrical activity in human muscle. Ergonomics, 15(July), 417-434.

Корей HP. (1962). The warm-up and autogenous injury. New York State Journal of Medicine, 62(20), 3255-3258.

Komberg L, Juliana R.L. (1992). Signal transduction from the extracellular matrix: The integrin-tyro sine kinase connection. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 13(3), 93-95.

Korr IAl (1975). Proprioceptors and somatic dysfunction. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 74(71, 638-650.

Koslow RE. (1987), Bilateral flexibility in the upper and lower extremities as related to age and gender. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 13(91. 467-472.

Kolike F.J., Pauley D.L., Ptak K.A. (1966). Prolonged stretching for correction of shortening of connective tissue. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 47(6), 345- 352.

Kraeger D.R. (1993). Foot injuries. In W.A. Lillegard and K.S. Rucker (Eds.), Handbook of sportsmedicine: A symptom-oriented approach (pp. 159-171). Boston: Andover Medical.

Krahenbuhl G.S., Martin S.L (1977). Adolescence body size and flexibility. Research Quarterly, 48(4), 797-799.

Kramer A.M., Schrier R.W. (1990). Demographic, social, and economic issues. In R.W. Schrier (Ed.), Geriatric medicine (pp. 1-11). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Kranz КС. (!988). Chiropractic treatment of low-back pain. Topics in Acute Care and Trauma Rehabilitation, 2(41, 47-62.

Kraus H. (1965). Backache stress and tension: Their cause, prevention and treatment. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Kraus H. (19701. Clinical treatment of back and neck pain. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kreighbnum E.. Barihels .KM (1985). Biomecbanics: A qualitative approach for studying human movement (2nd ed.1. Minneapolis: Burgess.

Kreici V., Koch P (19791. Muscle and tendon injuries in athletes, Stuttgart: Georg Thieme.

KriegisteinG.K, Langham M.E. (1975). Influence of body position on the intraocular pressure of normal and glaucomatous eyes. Ophthalmologica, 171(21, 132-145.

KrissoffW.B., Ferri.4 W.D. (1979). Runners injuries. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 7(12), 55-64.

KronbergM.. Brostrom, L-A., Soderlund, i-:(1990). Retroversion of the humeral head in the normal shoulder and its relationship to the normal range of motion. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 253(April1, 113-117.

Kvchera W.A.. Kuchera M.L (1992). Osteopathic principles in practice. Kirksville, MO: Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine.

Kudina L (1980). Reflex effects of muscle afferents on antagonists studies on single firing motor units in man. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 50(3-41, 214-221.

Kuipers H.J., Drukker P.M., Frederik P.M., Guerien P., Kranenburg G. V. (1983). Muscle degeneration after exercise in rats. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 4(11, 45-51.

Kulakov V. (1989). The harmony of training: The training of longdistance runners. Soviet Sport Review, 24(41, 164-168.

KulundD.N. (1980). The foot in athletics. In A.J. Helfet andD.M.G. Lee (Eds.), Disorders of the foot (pp. 58-79). Philadelphia: Lippincott.           г

Kulund D.N., Devtey J.B, Brubaker C.E., Roberts J.R. (1978). Olympic weight-lifting injuries. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 6(11), 111-119.

Kulitnd D.N., Totlossy M. (1983). Warm-up, strength, and power. Orthopaedic Clinics of North America, 14(2), 427л48.

Кит И., Kaufinann D.A. (1980). How the best sprinters differ. Track & Field Quarterly Review, 80(2).

Kuprian W., Ork H., Meissner L (1982). Spinal column and torso. In W. Kuprian (Ed.). Physical therapy for sports (pp. 262-286). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Kwzban G R , Wang K. (1988). Giant poly peptides of skeletal muscle titin: Sedimentation equilibrium in guanidine hydrochloride. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 150,1155-1161.

KushnerS., Saboe L, Reid D.. Penrose Т., Grace M. (1990). Relationship of turnout to hip abduction in professional ballet dancers. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 18(3), 286-291.

Laban M.M. (1962). Collagen tissue: Implications of its response to stress in vitro. Archives of Physical Medicine and Relubilitation, 43(9). 461-465.

Ladermann J.P. (1981). Accidents of spinal manipulations. Annals of the Swiss Chiropractic Association, 7,161-208.

LaFreniere .! G (1979). The Sow hack patient: Procedures for treatment by physical therapy. New York: Mason.

Larson LA., Michelman H. (1973). International guide to fitness and health. New York: Crown.

Larsson L-G., Baum J., Mudholkar G.S., Kollia C. (1993). Benefits and disadvantages of joint hypermobility among musicians. Nau England Journal of Medicine, 329(15), 1079-1082.

Lasater J. (1983). Asana triang mukhaikapada paschimottanasana. Yoga Journal, 52(September-October), 9-11.

Lasaier J. (1986). Supta virasana: Reclining hero pose. Yoga Journal, 67(March-April), 23-24.

Lasater J. (1988a). Janu Sirsasana: Head of the knee pose. Yoga Journal, 83(November-December), 35-40.

Lasaier J. (1988b). Uttanasana intense stretch pose. Yoga Journal, 79(March-April), 30-35.

Laubach L.C., McConvilte J T. (1966a). Muscle strength, flexibility, and bone size of adult males. Research Quarterly, 37(3), 384-392.

Laubach L.C., McConviiie J.T (1966bV Relationship between flexibility, anthropometry, and somatotype of college men. Research Quarterly, 37(2), 241-251.

Lawton R.IV (1957). Some aspects of research in biological elasticity. In J.W. Remington (Ed.), Tissue elasticity (pp. 1-11). Washington DC: American Physiological Society.

Laxton A.H. (1990). Practical approaches to the normalization of muscle tension. Journal ofManual Medicine, 5(3), 115-120.

LeardJ.S. (1984). Flexibility and conditioning in the young athlete. In L.J. Micheli (Ed.), Pediatric and adolescent sports medicine (pp. 194—210). Boston: Little, Brown.

Lealt P., Reiliy Т., TroupJ.G.D. (1986). Spinal loading during circuit weight-training and running. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 20(3), 119-124.

LeboeufC, Ames R.A., Budich C.W., Vmceni A.F. (1987). Changes in blood pressure and pulse rate following exercise in the inverted position. Journal of the Australian Chiropractic Association, 17(2), 60-62.

Lee D. (1989). The pelvic girdle. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Lee G.C. (1980). Finite element analysis in soft tissue mechanics. In B.R. Simon (Ed.), Vol.1. International conference on finite elements in biomechanics (pp. 27-37). Tucson, AZ: National Science Foundation and the University of Arizona College of Engineering.

Lee M.A.. Kleilman N. (1923). Studies on the physiology of sleep. II. Attempts to demonstrate functional changes in the nervous system during experimental insomnia. American Journal of Physiology, 67(1), 141-152.

LehmannJ.F, MasockA.J., Warren C.G.. Kobianski J.N. (1970). Effect of therapeutic temperature on tendon extensibility. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 51(8), 481л(87.

Lehmann J.P.. de LateurB.J. (1990). Diathermy and superficial heal, laser, and cold therapy. In J.F. Lehmann and BJ. de Lateur (Eds.), Krusen's handbook of physical medicine and rehabilitation (4th ed., pp. 285-367). Philadelphia: Saunders.

LehrerP.M., Woolfolk R.L (1984). Are stress reduction techniques interchangeable, or do they have specific effects? A review of the comparative empirical literature. In R.L. Woolfolk and P.M. Lehrer (Eds.), Principles and praclices of stress management. New York: Guilford Press.

Leighton JR. (1956). Flexibility characteristics of males ten to eighteen years of age. Archives of Physical and Mental Rehabilitation, 37(8), 494-199.

Leighlon JR. (1960). On the significance of flexibility for physical education. Journal of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 31(8), 27-28.

Le MarrJ.D.. Golding I.A.. AdierJ.G. (1984). Intraocular pressure responses to inversion. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics, 61(11), 679-682.

Leonard U.K.. Muir M.G., KirkbyG.R.. Hiichings R.A. (1983). Ocular hypertension and posture. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 67(6), 362-366.

Lepique G., Sell G. (1962). Der Gelenk binnendruck im normalen und geshadigten Gelenk [Internal pressure in the normal and pathological joint], Zeitschrift Orthopaedic und Ihre Grenzgebrete, 96(Julyl 235-238.

Levarlet-Joye II. (1979). Relaxation and motor capacity. Journal of Sports Medicine, 19(2), 151-156.

Levin R.M., WotfS.L. (1987). Preliminary analysis on conditioning of exaggerated triceps surae stretch reflexes among stroke patients. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 12(2), 153.

Levine M.G., Kabai H. (1952). Cocontraction and reciprocal innervations in voluntary movement in man. Science, 116(3005), 115-118.

Levtov V.A., Shush/ova A'.}' Regirer S.A. Shadrina N.K.. Maltsev N.A., Levkovich Y.I. (1985). Topographic and hydrodynamic heterogeneity of the terminal bed of the cat gastrocne-mius muscle vessel. Fiziologicheski Zlwmal SSR Imeni I.M. Sechenova, 71(9), 1105- 1111. (In Biological Abstracts, 81(9). AB-164, #79767.)

LewinG. (1979). Swimming. Berlin: Sportverlag.                                       -."

Lewii К (1991). Manipulative therapy in rehabilitation of the locomotor system (2nd ed.}. Oxford: Buttersworth-Heinmann.

Lewit К (1992). An assessment of the different treatment techniques in manipulative medicine. Journal of Manual Medicine, 6(6), 194-197.

Ley P. (1977). Psychological studies of doctor-patient communication. In S. Rachman (Ed.), Contributions to medical psychology. Oxford: Pergamon.

Ley P (1988). Communicating with patient: Improving communication, satisfaction and compliance. London: Croom Helm.

Liberson W. Т., Asa M. M. (1959). Further studies of brief isometric exercises. Archives of Physical Medicine, 40(8), 330-336.

Lichlor J. (1972). The loose-jointed young athlete. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 1(0,22-23.

Liemohn W. (1978). Factors related to hamstring strains. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 18(1), 71-75.

Liemohn IV (1988). Flexibility and muscular strength. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 59(7), 37-40.

Light K.E., NuzikS.. Personius №. BarstromA. (1984). A low-loading prolonged stretch vs. high-low brief stretch in treating knee contractures. Physical Tlierapy, 64(3), 330-333.

Lindner E. (1971). The phenomenon of the freedom of lateral deviation in throwing (Wurfseitenfreiheit). In J. Vredenbregt and J. Wartenwiller (Eds.), Medicine and sport: Vol. 6. Biomechanics II (pp. 240-245), Basel: Karger.

Livingston M.C.P (1968). Spinal manipulation in medical practice: A century of ignorance. Medical Journal of Australia, 2(13), 552-555.

Livingston MC.P. (1971). Spinal manipulation causing injury. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 81, 82-86.

Locker R.H., Dames G.J., Leei ,\'.G. (1976). Histology of highly-stretched beef muscle. 111. Abnormal contraction patterns in ox muscle, produced by overstretching during prerigor blending. Journal of infrastructure Research, 55(2), 173-181.

Locker R. 11., LeeiNG (1975>. Histotogy of highly-stretched beet" muscle. 1. The fine structure of grossly stretched single fibers. Journal of Ultrastruclure Research, 52(1), 64—75.

Locker R.H.. Leei A'.G (1976a). Histology of highly-stretched beef muscle. 11. Further evidence on the location and nature of gap filaments. Journal of Infrastructure Research, 55(2), 157-172.

Locker R.H., Leei KG. (1976b). Histology of highly-stretched beef muscle. IV. Evidence for movement of gap filaments through the Z-line. Using the N2-line and M-line as markers. Journal of Ultrastructure Research, 56fl), 31-38.

Loever.J. П985). Range of motion exercise. Minneapolis: Sister Kenny Institute.

Logan G A., Egstrom G.H. (1961). Effects of slow and fast stretching on the sacro-femoral angle. Journal Association for Physical and Menial Rehabifitation, 15f3), 85-89.

Long C. (1974). Physical medicine and rehabilitation. In CD- Ray (Ed.), Medical engineering (pp. 5I6-54J). Chicago: Yearbook Medical.

Long P.A. (1971). The effects of static, dynamic, and combined stretching exercise programs on hip joint flexibility. Unpublished master's thesis. University of Maryland.

Longworth J.C. (1982). P sy с hophy biological effects of slow stroke back massage on nor-motensive females. Advances in Nursing Science, 4(4), 44-61.

luutlil СМ.. Halford J.E (1930У The relationship between chest girth and vital capacity. Research Quarterly, 1(4), 34-35.

Low F.N. (1961a). The extracellular portion ofthe human blood-air barrier and its relation to tissue space. Anatomical Record, 139Г2), 105-122.

Low F\!. (1961b). Microfibrils, a small extracellular component of connective tissue. Anatomical Record, 139Г2), 250.

Low FN. (1962). Microfibrils, fine filamentous components ofthe tissue space. Anatomical Record, 142(2), 131-137.

Lovvlher D.A. (1981). Molecular aspects of connective tissue remodeling. In G.D. Bryant- Greenwood H.D. Niall, and F.C. Greenwood (Eds.), Relaxin (pp. 277-291). New York: Elsevier.

LubellA. (1989). Potentially dangerous exercises: Are they harmful to all? The Physician, and Sportsmedicine, 17(1), 187-192.

LubvS., Si. OngeRA. (1986). Bodysense. Winchester, MA: Faber and Faber.

Lucas R C, Koxlow R. (1984). Comparative study of static, dynamic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques on flexibility. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 58(2), 615-618.

Lund J.R, Donga R, Widmer C.G., Slohler C.S. (1991). The pain-adaptation model: A discussion of tlie relationship between chionic musoiloskeletal pain and motor activity. Canadian Journal of Physiological Pharmacology, 69(5), 683-694.

LundbergA. (1975). Control of spinal mechanisms from the brain. In D.B, Tower (Ed.), The nervous system. The basic neurosciences (Vol. I, pp. 253-265). New York: Raven Press.

Lundborg G. (1975). Structure and function ofthe intraneural microvessels as related to trauma, edema formation and nerve function. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 57A(7), 938-948.

Lundborg G. (1993). Peripheral nerve injuries: Pathophysiology and strategies for treatment. Journal of Hand Therapy, 6(3), 179-188.

Lundborg G., Branemark P.-I (1968). Microvascular structure and function of peripheral nerves. Advances in. Mi его circulation, 1,68-88.

Lundborg G., RydevikB. (!973). Effects of stretching the tibial nerve ofthe rabbit. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 55B(2), 390-401.

Lunde B.K. Brewer W.D., Garcia P.A. (1972). Grip strength of college women. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 53(10), 491-493.                                                                                                                                        ■ ■

Luthe W. (1969), Psychosomatic medicine. New York: Harper & Row.

Latter L.D. (1983). Problems in the foot and ankle in runners. In R.H. Kiene and K.A. Johnson (Eds.), American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons symposium on the foot and ankle (pp. 15-20). St. Louis: Mosby.

MacDonaid J. (1985). Falls in the elderly: The role of drugs in the elderly. Clinical Geriatric Medicine, 1,621-636.

MacDonaid JB. MacDonaid E.T. (1977). Nocturnal femoral fracture and continuing widespread use of barbiturate hypnotics. British Medical Journal, 2(6085), 483-485.

Macintosh J.E.. BogditkN., Pearcy MJ (1993). The effects of flexion on the geometry and actions of the lumbar erector spinae. Spine, 18(7), 884-893.

Maclennan S.E , Silveslri G.A., WardJ., Mahler D A. (1994). Does entrapment breathing improve the economy of rowing? Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 26(5), 610-614.

Madden J.W.. Arem A.J. (1986). Wound healing: Biological and clinical features. In D.C, Sabiston (Ed.), Textbook of surgery (13th ed., pp. 193-213). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Madding S.W., WongJ.G., Hatlum A., Medetros JM. (1987). Effects of duration of passive stretch on hip abduction range of motion. Journal of Orthopaedic Sports Physical Therapy, 8(8), 409-416.

Magder ft. Baxter M.L., Kassam Y.B. (1986). Does a diuretic improve morning stiffness in rheumatoid arthritis? British Journal of Rheumatology, 25(3), 318-319.

Magid A., Ting-Bealt H.P., Cornell M. Konlis T, Lucaveche С (1984). Connecting filaments, core filaments, and side struts: A proposal to add three new load bearing structures (o the sliding filament model. In G.H. Pollack and H. Sugi (Eds.), Contractile mechanisms in muscle (pp. 307-323). New York: Plenum.

Magmtsson M., Hull £., Lindstrom. I.. Lindell V. Pope M., Hansson T. (1990). Measurement of time-dependent height-loss during sitting. Clinical Biomechanics, 5(3), 137-142.

Magnusson S.P. Gieim G.W., Nicholas J.A. (1994). Shoulder weakness in professional baseball pitchers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26(1), 5-9.

Mahler D.A., Hunter В., Lentine Т.. Ward 1. (1991). Locomotor-respiratory coupling develops in novice female rowers with training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23(12), 1362-1366.

MaitlandG.D. (1979). Peripheral manipulation. Boston: В utters worth.

Molina RM. (1988). Physical anthropology'. In T.G. Lohman A.F. Roche, and R. Martorell (Eds.), Anthropometric standardization reference manual (pp. 99-102). Champaign, 1L: Human Kinetics.

MallikA.K., Ferrell W.R.. McDonald A.G., Sturrock R.D. (1994). Impaired proprioceptive acuity at the proximal interphalangeal joint in patients with the hypermobility syndrome. British Journal of Rheumatology, 33(7), 631-637.

Malt: M (1970). Psycho-Cybernetics. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Manheim C.J., l.avettD.K, (1989). The myofascial release manual. Thorofare. NJ: Slack.

Mann R.A., Baxter D.E., Latter i.D. (1981). Running symposium. Foot and Ankle, 1(4), 190-224.

MarinoM{ 1984). Profiling swimmers. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 3(1), 211-229.

MarkeeJ.E., Logue J.T., Williams M, Stanton W.B., WrennR.N, Walker LB. (1955). Two-joint muscles of the thigh. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 37A(1), 125-145.

Marras W.S.. Wongxam P.E. (1986). Flexibility and velocity of the normal and impaired lumbar spine. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 67(4), 213-217.

Marshall JL , Johanson N, Wickiewicz T.L.. Tischler H.M., KoslinB.L., ZenoS., Meyers A. (1980). Joint looseness: A function of the person and the joint. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 12(3), 189-194.

Martin D., Сое P. (1991). Training distance runners. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Martin R.M( 1982). The gravity guiding system. Pasadena, CA: Gravity Guidance.

Maruyama K. (1976). Connectin, an elastic protein from myofibrils. Journal of Biochemistry, 80(2), 405л(07.

Maruyama K. (1986). Connectin, an elastic filamentous protein of striated muscle. International Review of Cytology, 104, 81-115.

Maruyama K... Kimura S., Ohashi K... Kuwano Y. (1981). Connectin, an elastic protein of muscle.

KicDonagh M.J.N., Hayward СМ., Davies C.T.M. (I9S3). Isometric training in human elbow flexor muscles; The effects on voluntary and electrically evoked forces. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 65B(3), 355-358.

McDonough A.L (1981). Effects of immobilization and exercise on articular cartilage-A review of the literature. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 3(1), 2-5.

McFarlane A.C., Kahicy R.S, Brooks PM. (1987). Psychological predictor of disease course in rheumatoid arthritis, journal of Psychosomatic Research, 31 (6), 757-764.

McFarlane B. (1987). A look inside the biomechanics and dynamics of speed. NSCA Journal, 9(5). 35-41.

McGeeS.R. < 1990). Muscle cramps. Archives of Internal Medicine, 150(3), 511-518.

McGeorge S. (19S9). Warming up and warming down. Health and Physical Education Project Newsletter, No. 22.

McGillS.hi, BrownS. (1992). Creep response of the lumbar spine to prolonged foil flexion. Clinical Biomechanics, 7(1), 43-46.

McGlyrm G.H., Laughilin NT., Rowe К (1979). Effect of electromyographic feedback and static stretching on artificially induced muscle soreness. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 58(3), 134-148.

McKenzie.R. (1981). Mechanical diagnosis and treatment of the lumbar spine. New Zealand: Spinal.

McKenzie R. (1983). Treat your own neck. New Zealand: Spinal.

McKusick V.A. (!956). Heritable disorders of connective tissue. St. Louis: Mosby.

Mch'eilP.A., HoykG. (1967). Evidence for super thin filaments. American Zoologist, 7(3), 483-503.

McNisi-Gray J.L (3 991). Biomechanics related to exercise and pregnancy. In R.A. Mittelmark R.A. Wiswell, and B.L. Drinkwater (Eds,), Exercise in pregnancy (2nd ed., pp. 133-140). Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins.

McPoil T.G., McGarvey T.C. (1995). The foot in athletics. In G.C. Hunt and T.G. McPoil (Eds.), Physical therapy of the foot and ankle (2nd ed., pp. 207-236). New York: Churchill Livingstone.

MeadN. (1994). Eating for flexibility. Yoga Journal, 117 (July-August), 91-98.

MalG.M., Scon R.A. (1986). Analysis of the joint crack by simultaneous recording of sound and tension. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 9(3), 189—195.

Medeiras J.M., Smidt G.L, Burmeister L.F.. SoderbergG.L (1977). The influence of isometric exercise and passive stretch on hip joint motion. Physical Therapy, 57(5), 518-523.

Meeker W.C (1991). Designing research on spinaJ manipulation. ABS Newsletter, 7(2), 19-21.

Mellerowicz H., Hamen G, (1971). Conditioning. In L.A. Larson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of sport sciences and medicine (pp. 1586-1587). New York: Macmillan.

MellimG. (1985). Physical therapy for chronic low back pain: Correlations between spinal mobility and treatment outcome. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 17(4), 163-166.

MennetlJ. (I960). Back pain. Boston: Little, Brown.

Merleiri R., Repossi F, Richetta £., Maihis C, Saracco C.R. (1986). Size and x-ray density of normal and denervated muscles of the human legs and forearms. Internationa! Rehabilitation Medicine, 8(2), 82-89.

MerniF., Balboni M., BargeU'mi S., Menegatli G. (1981). Differences in males and females in joint movement range during growth. Medicine and Sport, 15,168-175.

Merskey H (1979). Pain terms: A list with definitions and notes on usage. Recommended by the 1SAP Subcommittee on Taxonomy Pain, 6(3), 249-252.'

MethenyE. (1952). Body dynamics. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Moore М.А. (1979). An electromyographic investigation of muscle stretching techniques. Unpublished masters thesis. University of Washington, Seattle.

Moore M.A., llutlon R.S. (1980). Electromyographic investigalion of muscle stretching techniques. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 12(5), 322-329.

Moos R.H. (1974). Coping with physical illness. In R.H. Moss and V.D. Tsu (Eds.), The crisis of physical illness: An overview (pp. 3-21). New York: Plenum Press.

Moral (1990). Dynamic stretching. Triathlete, 84,28-31.

Morehouse L.E., Miller A. T. (1971). Physiology of exercise. St. Louis: Mosby.

Morelli M., Seaborne D.E., Sullivan SJ. (1989). Motoneurone excitability changes during massage of the triceps sura (Abstract). Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences, 14(4), 129P.

MoretzAJ., Walters R.. Smith L (1982). Flexibility as a predictor of knee injuries in college football players. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 10(7), 93-97.

Morey M.C.. Cowper P.A.. Femsner J.R., Dipasquale RC, Croeley G.M., Kitzman D.W., Sullivan RJ. (1989). Evaluation of a supervised exercise program in a geriatric population. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 37(4), 348-354.

Morgan W.P. Horstman DM. (1976). Anxiety reduction following acute physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports, 8( I), 62.

Moritani, Т., de Vries H.A. (1979). Neural factors versus hypertrophy in time course of muscle strength gain. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 58(3), 115-130.

Morris J. At. Brenner C, Lucas D.B. (1962). An electromyographic study of the intrinsic muscles of the back in man. Journal of Anatomy, 96(4), 509-520.

Moss FP.. LeblondC.P. (1971). Satellite cells as the source of nuclei in muscles of growing rats. Anatomical Record, 170(4), 421л136.

Motiice M. Goldberg D., Benner E.K., Spoerl J. (1986). Soft tissue mobilization. N.p.: JEMD.

Mountcastle V.B. (1974). Medical physiology. St. Louis: Mosby.

Muckle D.S. (1982). Associated factors in recurrent groin and hamstring injuries. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 16(1), 37-39.

MiMemann P., CiminoJ.A. (1990). Therapeutic muscle stretching. In W.L Hammer (Ed.), Functional soft tissue examination and treatment by manual methods. The extremities (pp. 251-275). Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.

Muir H. (1983). Proteoglycans as organizers of the intercellular matrix. Biochemical Society Transactions, 11(6), 613-622.

Munm K. (1981). Effects of exercise on the range of joint motion in elderly subjects. In E.L. Smith and R.C. Serfass (Eds.), Exercise and aging: The scientific basis (pp. 167-178). Hillsdale, NJ: Enslow.

Munroe R.A , Romance T.J. (1975). Use of the leighton flexomeler in the development of a short flexibility test battery. American Corrective Therapy Journal, 29(1), 22-25.

Murphy DR. (1991). A critical look at static stretching: Are we doing our patients harm? Chiropractic Sports Medicine, 5(3), 67-70.

Murphy P (1986). Warming up before stretching advised. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 14(3), 45.

Murray M.P.. Sepic SB. (1968). Maximum isometric torque of hip abductor and adductor muscles. Physical Therapy, 48(12), 1327-1335.

Myers E.R.. Armstrong C.G., Mcnv V.C. (1984). Swelling, pressure, and collagen tension. In D.W.L. Hukin (Ed.), Connective tissue matrix (pp. 161-186). Deerfield Beach, FL: Verlag Chemie.

MversM. (1983). Stretching. Dance Magazine, 57(6), 66-68.

Myklebusl B.M., Gottlieb G.L., AganvalG.C. (1986). Stretch reflexes of the normal human infant. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 28(4), 440л+49.

Mysorekar V.R., Nandedkar A.N. (1986). Surface area of the atlanto-occipital articulations. ActaAnatomica, 126(4), 223-225.

Nagler W. (1973a). Mechanical obstruction of vertebral arteries during hyperextension of neck. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 7( 1-2), 92-97.

Oakes B.W. (1981). Acute soft tissue injuries: Nature and management. Australian Family Physician, 13(SuppD, 3-16.

Obers B. (1993). Evaluation and improvement of strength in competitive athletes. In K. Harms-Ringdahl (Ed.), Muscle strength (pp. 167-185). Edinburgh: Churchil! Livingstone.

OchsA.. Newberry 1, Lenhardl M. Harkins S. W. (1985). Neural and vestibular aging associated with falls. In J-E. Birren and K. W. Schaie (Eds.). Handbook of the psychology of aging (2nd ed., pp. 378-399). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

O'Donoshue D.H. (1984). Treatment of injuries to athletes (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.

O'DriscollS.L; Tomenson J. (1982). The cervical spine. Clinical Rheumatic Diseases, 8(3), 617-630.

Ogata K„ Naito M. (1986). Blood flow of peripheral nerve effects of dissection, stretching and compression. Journal of Hand Surgery, 11B(1), 10-14.

Ohshiro T. (1991). Low reactive-level laser therapy. New York: Wiley.

Okada M. (1970). Electromvo graphic assessment of muscular load in forward bending postures. Journal of Faculty Science (University of Tokyo). 8.311-336.

OlcotlS. (1980). РаПпет flexibility exercises. Coaching Women's Athletics, 6(2),


O'Matlev EF- Sprinkle R.L (1986). Stretching exercises for pretibial periostitis. Current Podiatric Medicine, 35(7), 22-23.

O'Neil R. (1976). Prevention of hamstring and groin strain. Athletic Training, 11(1)), 27-31.

Oppliger R., Clark B.A.. Mayhew J.L., HavwoodKM (1986). Strength, flexibility, and body composition differences between age-group swimmers and non-swimmers. Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(2). 14-16.

Oseid S.. Evienih G. Evienlh. O.. Gunnarl H. Meen D. (1974). Lower back troubles in voung female gymnasts. Frequency, symptoms and possible causes. Bulletin of Physical Education. 10.25-28.

Osolin N.G. (1952). Das Training des Leichtathleten. Berlin: Sportverlag.

Osolin KG. (1971). Sovremennaia svstema sportivnoi trenirovky [Athlete's training system for competitionsl. Moscow: Phyzkultura i sport.

Osternisl.R., Robertson RN„ TroxelR.K., HansenP. (1990). Differential responses to pro-prioceptive n euro muscular facilitation (PNF) stretch techniques. Medicme and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22( 1), 106-111.

Owen E (1882). Notes on the voluntary dislocations of a contortionist. British Medical Journal, 1,650-653.

Ozkaya N.. Nordin M. (1991). Fundamentals of biomechanics, equilibrium, motion and deformation. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Pachter B.R., Eherstein A. (1985). Effects of passive exercise on neurogenic atrophy in rat skeletal muscle. Experimental Neurology, 90(2), 467-470.

Page S.G., Huxley И.Е. (1963). Filament lengths in striated muscle. Journal of Cell Biology. 1912). 369-390.

Panagioiacovulos N.D.. Knauss W.G.. Bloch R. (1979). On the mechanical properties of human intervene bra I disc material. Biorheologv. 16(4-5). 317-330.

Pang. SeeBarker(1974).

PardiniA. (19S4). Exercise, vitality and aging. Aging, 344,19-29.

Paris S.V. (1990). Cervical symptoms of forward head posture. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 5(4), 11-19.

Parker M.G., Ruhling R.O., Holt D., Bauman £., Drayna M. (1983). Descriptive analysis of auadriceps and hamstrings muscle toraue in high school football players. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 5(1), 2-6.

Parry LA. (1975). The history of torture in England. Muntclair, NJ: Patterson Smith.

Partridge S.M. (1966). Elastin. In E.J. Briskey R.G. Cassens., J.C. Trautman (Eds.), The physiology and biochemistry of muscle as food (pp. 327-337). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Pate R.R.. Pratt M., Blair S.N., Haskell W.L., Macera C.A., Bouchard C, Buchner D., EtlingerW., Health G.W., King A.C, Kriska.4.. LeonA.S., Marcus B.I I., Morris 1, Pqffenbarger R.S, PatrickK, PollockM.L, Rippe J.M.. SallisJ., Wilmore J.H. (1995). Physical activity and public health: A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273(5), 402-407.

Patel D.J., FryD.L (1964). In situ pressure-radius-length measurements in ascending aorta of anesthetized dogs. Journal of Applied Physiology, 19(3), 413-416.

Patel D.J. Greenfield J.C. Fry D L (1963). In vivo pressure-length-radius relationship of certain blood vessels in man and dog. In E.O. Altinger (Ed.), Pulsatile blood flow (pp. 293-306). Philadelphia: McGraw-Hill.

Pauly J.E. (1966). An electromyographic analysis of certain movements and exercises. I. Some deep muscles ofthe back. Anatomical Record, 155(2), 223-234.

Pearcy M., Por/ek I., Shepherd J. (1985). The effect of low-back pain on lumbar spinal movements measured by three-dimensional x-ray analysis. Spine, 10(2), 150-153.

Pechinski JM. (1966). The effects of interval running and breath-holding on cardiac intervals. Unpublished master's thesis. University of Illinois, Champaign.

Pechtl К (1982). Fundamentals and methodsforthedevelopment of flexibility. InD. Harre (Ed.), Principles of sports training (pp. 146-152). Berlin: Sportverlag.

Perez H.R., Fumasoli S. (1984). Benefit of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on the joint mobility of youth-aged female gymnasts with correlations for rehabilitation. American Corrective Therapy Journal, 38(6), 142-146.

Peters J.M.. Peters H.K. (1983). The flexibility manual. Berwyn, PA: Sports Kinetics.

Peterson L., Renstrom P. (1986). Sports injuries: Their prevention and treatment. Chicago: Year Book Medical.

Pheasant S. (19S6). Body space-Anthropometry, ergonomics and design. London: Taylor and Francis.

Pheasants. (!99I). Ergonomics, work and healih. Gaithersburg.MD: Aspen.

Phillips C.G. (1969). The ferrier lecture, 1968. Motor apparatus of Ihe baboons. Proceedings ofthe Royal Society (Biology), !73, 141-174.

Phillips R.B., Mootz R.D. (1992). Contemporary chiropractic philosophy. In S. Haldeman (Ed.). Principles and practice of chiropractic (2nd ed.) (p. 45-52), Norwalk, Ct: Appleton & Lange.

Ploucher D. W /1982). Inversion petechiae. New England Journal of Medicine, 307(22), 1406-1407.

Pollack G.H. (1983). The cross-bridge theory. Physiological Review, 63(3), 1049-1113.

Pollack G.H. (1986). Quantal mechanisms in cardiac contraction. Circulation Research, 59,1-8.

Pollack G.H. (1990). Muscles & molecules: Uncovering the principles of biological motion. Seattle: Ebner & Sons.

Pollack G.H.. Iwazumi Т., ter Keurs H.E.D.J.. Shibata E.F. (1977). Sarcomere shortening in striated muscle occurs in stepwise fashion. Nature, 268(5622), 757-759.

Pollock M.L, Wilmore JH. (1990). Exercise in health and disease: Evaluation and prescription for prevention and rehabilitation. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Pope At.H, Andersson G.B.J., FrymoyerJ.W., ChqffinD.B. (1991). Occupational low back pain: Assessment, treatment and prevention. Chicago: Mosby Yearbook.

Pope MIL, Klingenstierna U. (1986). Height changes due to autotraction. Clinical Biomechanics, 1(4), 191-195.

PortenfieldJ.A., De Rosa С (1991). Mechanical low back pain perspectives in functional anatomy. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Portnoy H.. Morin F. (1956). Electromyographic study of postural muscles in various positions and movements. American Journal of Physiology, 186(1), 122-126.

Fountain G. (1992). Musculoskeletal pain in Omanis, and the relationship to joint mobility and body mass index. British Journal of Rheumatology, 31(2), 81—85.

Pratt М- (1989). Strength, flexibility, and maturity in adolescent aftiietes. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 143(5). 560-563.

Prentice H'.E. (1982). An electromyographic analysis of the effectiveness of heat or cold and stretching for inducing relaxation in injured muscle. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Tlierapv, 3(3), 133-140.

Prentice W.E. (1983). A comparison of static stretching and PNF stretching for improving hip joint flexibility. Athletic Training, 18(1), 56-59.

Prentice H'.E. (1940). Rehabilitation techniques in sports medicine. St. Louis: Times Mirror/Mo sby.

Price MG. (1991). In Advances in structural biology (Vol. 1, pp. 175-207). New York: JAI


Prichard B. (1984, January). Lower extremity injuries in runners induced by upper body torque (LiBT). Presented at the Biomechanics and Kinesiology in Sports U.S. Olympic Sports Medicine Conference. Colorado Spvings, CO.

Priest J-D. (1989). A physical phenomenon: Shoulder depression in athletes. SportCare & Fitness. 2(2). 20-25.

Priest J-D., Jones И.Н., Tichenor C.J., Nagel D..4. (1977). Arm and elbow changes in expert lennis players. Minnesota Medicine, 60(5), 399-404.

Priest J-D.. Nagel D.A. (1976). Tennis shoulder. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 4( 1), 28-42-

PringleJ. IV.S. (1967). The contractile mechanism of insect fibritlar muscle. Progress in Biophysics aiid Molecular Biology, 17,1 -60.

Prockop D.J., Guzman N.A. (1977). Collagen diseases and the biosynthesis of collagen. Hospital Practice, 12(2), 61-68.

Puschel J. (1930). Der Wassergehalt vrjraler un degenerieter Zwischenwirbelschiben. Beitrage zur Pathologischen Anatomic und zur Allgemeinen Pathologie, 84,123-130-

Quebec Task Force on Spinal Disorders 1,1987). Scientific approach to the assessment and management of activity-related spinal disorders: A monograph for clinicians. Spine, 12(7), S1-S55.

RaabD.M., AgreJ.C, McAdam M, Smith EL (1988). Light resistance and stretching exercise in elderly women: Effect upon flexibility. Archives of Physical Rehabilitation, 69(4), 268-272.

Raditt E.L (1989). Role of muscles in protecting athletes from injury. Acta Medica Scandinavica. 711(SuppL), 143-147.

Ramachandran G.W. (1967). Structure of collagen at the molecular level. In G.W. Ramachandran (Ed.), Treatise of collagen (Vol. 1, pp. 103-179). New York: Academic Press.

Ramacharaka Y. (1960). The hindu-yogi science of breath. London: L.N. Fowler.

Rankin J.M.. Thompson C.B. (1983). Isokinetic evaluation of quadriceps and hamstrings function: Normative data concerning body weight and sport. Athletic Training, 18(2), 110-114.

Rao Г (1965). Reciprocal inhibition: Inapplicability to tendon jerks. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, ll(July), 123-125.

Rasch PJ-. Burke J. (1989). Kinesiology and applied anatomy (7th ed.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

Rasmiissen G.G. (1979). Manipulation in low back pain: A randomized clinical trial. Manual Medicine, 1(1), 8-10.

Rath W.W. (1984). Cervical traction, a clinical perspective. Orthopaedic Review, 13(8), 29л18.

RathboneJ.L (1971). Relaxation, in L. A. Larson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of sport sciences and medicine (pp. 1312-1313). New York: Macmillan.

Ray W.A.. Griffin M.R. (1990). Prescribed medications and the risk of falling. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 5(2), 12-20.

Read U (1989). Over stretched. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 23(4), 257-258.

Reedy M.K. (1971). Electron microscope observations concerning the behavior of the cross-bridge in striated muscle. In R.J. Podolsky (Ed.), Contractility of muscle cells and related processes (pp. 229-246). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.             ■ .- - -., ,--.■■..-

Reid D.C. (1992). Sports injury assessment and rehabilitation. London: Churchill Livingstone.

Reilly Т., Tyrrell A., Troup J.D.G. (1984). Circadian variation in human stature. Chronobiology Internationa), 1(2), 121-126.

Renstrom P., Rota C. (1988). Clinical implications of youth participation in sports. In A. Dirix H.G. Kni*ltgen, and K. Tittel (Eds.), The Olympic book of spurts medicine (Vol. 1, pp. 469-488). London: Blackwell Scientific.

Rhodin J.A.G. (1988). Architecture of the vessel wall. In S.R. Geiger (Ed.), Handbook of physiology: Sec. 2: The cardiovascular system (Vol. 2, pp. 1-31). Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society.

Riddle K.S. (1956). A comparison of three methods for increasing flexibility of the trunk and hip ioints. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Oregon.

RigbyB. (1964). The effect of mechanical extension under thermal stability of collagen. Bi-ochimica et Biophysica Ada, 79 (SC 43008), 634-636.

RigbyBJ., HiraiN., Spikes J.D., EyringJ. (1959). The mechanical properties of rat tail tendon. Journal of General Physiology, 43(2), 265-283.

RikkersR. (1986). Seniors on the move. Champaign, 1L: Human Kinetics.

Rikli R , Busch S. (1986). Motor performance of women as a function of age and physical activity. Journal of Gerontology, 41(5), 645-649.

Rippe J.M. (1990). Staying loose. Modern Maturity, 33(3), 72-77

Rilchen P. (1975). A way to stay loose. Runner's World, 10(2), 32-33.

RoafR. П977). Posture. New York: Academic Press.

Robertson D.F. (1960). Relationship of strength of selected muscle groups and ankle flexibility to flutter kick in swimming. Unpublished master's thesis, Iowa State University, Ames.

Rob'tson C, Jensen C, James S., Hirschi W. (1974). Prevention, evaluation, management & rehabilitation. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Rochcongar P., Dassonvitle J., Le Bars R. (1979). Modifications of the Hoffmann reflex in function of afhietic training. European Journaf of Applied Physiology, 40(3), 165-170.

Rockstein M.. Sussman А/ (1979). Biology of aging. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

RodenburgJ.B., SteenbeekD., Schiereck P., Bar PR. (1994). Warm-up, stretching and massage diminish harmful effects of eccentric exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 15(7), 414-419.

Rodeo S. (1984). Swimming the bteaststroke-A Kinesiological analysis and considerations for strength straining. NSCA Journal, 6(41, 4-6, 74-76,80.

Rodeo S. (T985a), The butterfly: A kinesiological analysis and strength training program, NSCA Journal, 7(4), 4-10,74.

Rodeo S. (1985b). The butterfly: Physiologically speaking. Swimming Technique, 21(4), 14-19.

Roland P. E., Ladegaard-Pedersen H. (1977). A quantitative analysis of sensations of tension and of kinesthesia in man. Evidence for a peripherally originating muscular sense and for a sense of effort. Brain, 100(4), 671-692.

Rose B.S. (1985). The hypermobility syndrome loose-limbed and liable. New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy, 13(2), 18-19.

Rose D.L. Radzyminski S.R. Beatly R.R. (1957). Effect of brief maximal exercise on strength of the quadriceps femoris. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 38(3), 157-164.

Rosenberg B.S.. Cornelius WL, Jackson AW.. Czubakowski S (1985). The effects of pro-prioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) flexibility techniques with local cold application on hip joint range of motion in 55-84 year old females. In Abstracts research papers 1977 (p. 110). Washington, DC: AAHPER.

Rosenbioom J., Abramx W.R., Mecham ft. (1993). Extracellular matrix 4: The elastic fiber. The FASEB Journal, 7(13), 1208-1218.

Roston J.В., Haines R.W, (1947). Cracking in the metacarpophalangeal joint. Journal of Anatomy, 81(2), 165-173.

Round JM., Jones D.A.. Cambridge G. (1987). Cellular infiltrates in human skeletal muscle: Exercise induced damage as a model for inflammatory disease? Journal of the Neurological Sciences

Rawe R.W.D. (1981). Morphology of perimysial and endomysial connective tissue in skeletal muscle. Tissue & Cell, 13(4}, 681-690.

Rowinski M.J. (1985). Afferent neurobiology of the joint. In J.A. Gould and G.J. Davies (Eds.), Orthopaedic and sports physical therapy (pp. 50-64). St. Louis: Mosby.

Roy S.. Invin R. (1983). Sports medicine: Prevention, evaluation, management, and rehabilitation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Rubin E, FarberJ.L (1994). Pathology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Rusk HA. (1977). Rehabilitation medicine (4th ed.). St. Louis: C.V. Mosby.

Russell В.. Dix D.J. (1992). Mechanisms for intracellular distribution of mRNA: In situ hybridization studies in muscle. American Journal of Physiology, 262 (31:1), C1-C8.

Russell В., DixD.l, Mailer D.L, Jacobs-El J. (1992). Repair of injured skeletal muscle: A molecular approach. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24(2), 189-!%.

Russell G.S.. Highland T.R. (1990)- Care ofthe low back. Columbia, MO: Spine.

Russell P, Weld A., Pearcy M.J.. Hogg R., Uasworlh A (1992). Variation in lumbar spine mobility measured over a 24-hour period. British Journal of Rheumatology, 31(5), 329-332.

Ryan A.J. (Moderator). (1976). Ballet dancers pose sports medicine challenge. The Physician and Sports medicine, 4(11), 44—57.

Rydevik B.L. Kwan. M.K.. MyersRR.. Brown R.A., Triggs K.J, Woo S. L-Y, Carfin S.R. (1990). An in vilro mechanical and hislological study of acute stretching on rabbit tibia! nerve. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 8(5), 694-701.

Rydevik В., Lundborg G., Skatak R (1989). Biomechanics of peripheral nerves. In M. Nordin and V.H. Frankel (Eds.), Basic biomechanic ofthe musculoskeletal system (pp. 76-87). Philadelphia: Lea& Febiger.

Rymer W.Z.. HoukJ.C, Crago, RE. (1979). Mechanisms ofthe clasp-knife reflex studied in an animal model. Experimental Brain Research, 37(1), 93—113.

SaalJ.S. (1987). Flexibility training. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: State ofthe Art Reviews, 1(4), 537-554.

SachseJ., Berger M. (1989). Cervical mobilization induced by eye movement. Journal of Manual Medicine, 4(4), 154-156.

Sacketl D.L., Snow J. С (1979). The magnitude of compliance and noncompliance. In R.B. Haynes D.W. Taylor, and D.L. Sackett (Eds.), Compliance in health care (pp. 11—22). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Sady S.R, IVortman M., Blanks D. (1982). Flexibility training: Ballistic, static or proprio-ceptive neuromuscular facilitation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 63(6), 261-263.

Sage G.H. (1971). Introduction to motor behavior. A neurophysiological approach. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

SahR.L, DoongJ.Y.H., Grodzinsky A.J., PlaesA.H.K., Sandy J.D. (1991). Effects of compression on the loss of newly synthesized proteoglycans and proteins from cartilage ex- plants. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 286,20-29.

SahR.L. Grodzinsky A.J., PlaasA.H.K.. Sandy J.D. (1992). Effects of static and dynamic compression on matrix metabolism in cartilage ex plants. In K..E. Kuettner R. Schleyerbach and J.G. Peyron (Eds.), Articular cartilage and osteoarthritis (pp. 373-391). New York: Raven Press.

Sale D.G. (1986). Neural adaptation in strength and power training. In N.L. Jones N. McCartney, and A.J. McComas (Eds.), Human muscle power (pp. 289-307). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Sale D.G., MacDougali J.D., Upton A.R.M., McComas A.J. (1983). Effect of strength training upon motomeuron excitability in man. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 15(1), 57-62.

Sale D.G.. McComas A.J.. MacDougali J.D.. Vplon A.R.M. (1982). Neuromuscular adaptation in human thenar muscles following strength training and immobilization. Journal of Applied Physiology, 53(2), 419-424.

SandersG.E., Reinert, О., TepeR.. MaloneyP. (1990). Chiropractic adjustive manipulation on subjects with acute lowback pain: Visual analog pain scores and plasma ?-endorphin levels. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 13(7), 391-395.

Sandoz R. (1969). The significance of the manipulative crack and of other articular noises. Annals of the Swiss Chiropractic Association, 4,47-68,

Sandoz R. (1976). Some physical mechanisms and effects of spinal adjustments. Annals of the Swiss Chiropractic Association, 6,91-141.

Sands B. (1984). Coaching women's gymnastics. Champaign, 1L: Human Kinetics.

Sandstead H L. (1968). The relationship of outward rotation of the humerus to baseball throwing velocity. Unpublished master's thesis. Eastern Illinois University, Charleston.

Sapega A.A., Quedenfeld T.C., Mayer R.A.. BuilerR.A. (1981). Biophysical factors in range- of-motton exercise. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 9(12), 57-65.

Sounders II.D. (1986). Lumbar traction. In G.P. Grieve (Ed.), Modem manual therapy of the vertebral column (pp. 787-795). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Schiaffino S. (1974). Hypertrophy of skeletal muscle induced by tendon shortening. Ex-perimentia, 30,1163-1164.

Schiaffino S., Hanzlikova V. (1970). On the mechanisms of compensatory hypertrophy in skeletal muscle. Experimentia, 26,152-153.

Schneider H.J., King A.Y, Branson J.L.. Milter EH. (1974). Stress injuries and developmental change of lower extremities in ballet dancers. Radiology, 113(3), 627-632.

Schneiderman R., Kevet D., Marondas A. (1986). Effects of mechanical and osmotic pressure on the rate of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the human adult femoral head cartilage: An in vivo study. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 4,393-408.

SchniitJ.M., Schniil D. (1989). Psychological issues in a dancer's career. InA.J. Ryan and R.E. Stephens (Eds.), The healthy dancer. Princeion, NJ: Princeton Book.

Schotlelius B.A., Senay LC. (1956). Effect of stimulation-length sequence on shape of length-tens ion diagram. American Journal of Physiology, 186(1), 127-130.

Schubert M., Hammerman D. (1968). A primer on connective tissue biochemistry. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

Schuitz A.B., Andersson G.B., Haderspeck A'.. Oriengren R., Nordin M. Bjork R (1982). Analysis and measurement of lumbar trunk loads in tasks involving bends and twists. Journal of Biomechanics, 15(9), 669-675.

Schuitz A.B., Haderspeck-Grib K, Sinkora C, Warwick D.N, (1985). Quantitative studies of the flex ion-relaxation phenomenon in the back muscles. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 3(2), 189-197.

Schuitz P (1979). Flexibility: Day of the static stretch. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 7(11), 109-117.

Schuster D.F. (1988). Exploring backbends. Yoga Journal, 80(May-June), 55-60.

Schuster R.O. (1978). Shin splints. Running Review, 2(5), 20-21.

Scfnvane J.A., Armstrong R.B. (1983). Effect of training on skeletal muscle injury from downhill running in rats. Journal of Applied Physiology, 55(3), 969-975.

Scfnvane J.A., Williams J.S., Sloan J.H. (1987). Effects of training on delayed muscle soreness and serum creafine (dnase activity after running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19(6), 584-590.

Schweitzer G, (1970). Laxity of the metacarpo-phalangea! joints of the finger and inter-phalangeal joint of the thumb in comparative inter-racial studies. South African Medical Journal, 44(9), 246-249.

Scott А В (1994). Change of eye muscle sarcomeres according to eye position. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, ЗЦ2), 85-88.

Scott D.. Bird H.A., Wright V. (1979). Joint laxity leading to osteoarthrosis. Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, 18,167-169.

Scott J.T. (I960). Morning stiffness in rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 19(4), 361-368.

Sechrist W.C., Siul! G.A. (1969). Effects of mild activity, heat applications, and cold applications on range of joint movement. American Corrective Therapy Journal, 23(4), 120- 123.

Segal D.D. (1983). An anatomic and biomechanical approach to low back health: A preventive approach. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 23(4), 411-421.

Segal R.L.. WolfS.L (1994). Operam conditions of spinal stretch reflexes in paiients with spinal cord injuries. Experimental Neurology 130(2), 202-213.

Seimon L.P. (1983). Low back pain: Clinical diagnosis and management. Norwalk, CT: A ppleton-Ce nturv -Crofts.

Seliger V.. Dolejs !.., Karas V. (1980), A dynamometric comparison of maximum eccentric, concentric and isometric contraction using EMG and energy expenditure measurements. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 45(2-3), 235-244.

SenoS. (1968). The motion of the spine and (he related electromyogram of the patient suffering from lumbago. Electromyography, 8(2), 185-186.

Sermeev В. И (1966). Development of mobility in the hip joint in sportsmen. Yessis Review, 2(1), 16-17.

Shambaugh P. (1987). Changes in electrical activity in muscles resulting from chiropractic adjustment: A pilot study. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 10(6), 300-304.

Shamos М.И., Lavine L.S. (1967). Piezoelectricity as a fundamental property of biological tissues- Nature, 213(5073), 267-269.

SharratlM.T. (1984). Wrestling profile. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 3(1), 273-289.

Shellock F.G., Prentice W.E. (1985). Warming-up and stretching for improved physical performance and prevention of sports-related injuries. Sports Medicine, 2(4), 267-278.

Shephard R.J. (1978). The fit athlete. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shephard R.J. (1982), Physiology and biochemistry of exercise. New York: Praeger.

Shephard R.J., Berridge M, Monte/pare W. (1990). On the generality ofthe «sit and reach» test: An analysis of flexibility data for an aging population. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 61(4), 326-330.

Sherrington C.S. (1906). Integrative action ofthe nervous system. Reprint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1947.

SheslackR., Ditto F.. W (1964). Physician's physical therapy manual. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Shirado О.. Но Т., Kaneda K.. Slrax Т.Е. (1995). Flexion-relaxation phenomenon in the back muscles. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74(2), 139-144.

Shumun D , Staab G.R. (I960). Your aching back and what you can do about it. New York: Gramery.

Shuslova N.Y., Maltsev N.A., Levkovich Y.I., Leviov У.А. (1985). Postelongation hyperemia in gastrocnemius muscle capillaries. Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSR Imeni l.M. Sechenova, 71(5), 599-608. (In Biological Abstract, 81(4) p. 169. No. 30857, Feb. 1986.)

Shuslova ,V.)', Matchanov A.T., Leviov V.A. (1985). Effect of the compression of gastroc-nemius nrasde vessels on the muscle Wood supply in stretching. Fiziologkheskii Zhumal SSSR Imeni l.M. Sechenova. 71(9), 1105-1111. (In Biological Abstract, 81(9) p. 164. No. 79766, May 1986.)

Shyne K, (1982). Richard H. Dominguez M.D.: To stretch or not to stretch? The Physician and Sportsmedicme, 10(9), 137-140.

Sigerseth PC. (1971). Flexibility In L.A. Larson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of sport sciences and medicine (pp. 280-281). New York: MacmiHan.

Sihvonen T. Partanen J., Hanninen, O.. Soimakallio S. (1991). Electric behavior of low back muscles during lumbar pelvic rhythm in low back pain patients and healthy controls. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 72,1080-1087.

Silman A.J., Haskard D., Day S. (1986). Distribution of joint mobility in a normal population: Results of the use of fixed torque measuring devices. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 45(1), 27-30.

SimardT.G., Basmajian J. V (1967). Methods in training conscious control of motor units. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 48(1), 12-19.

Sime W.E. (1977). A comparison of exercise and meditation in reducing physiological response to stress. Medicine and Science in Sports, 9(1), 55.

Simpson D.G., Carver W., BorgT.K.. TerracioL (1994). Role of mechanical stimulation in the establishment and maintenance of muscle ceil differentiation. International Review of Cytology, 150,69-94.


Sing RE (1984). The dynamics of the javelin throw. Cherry Hill, NJ: Reynolds.


Sjastrand FS. (1962). The connection between A- and I-band filaments in striated frog muscle. Journal of Uitrastructure Research, 7(3-4), 225-246.

Slocum D.B., James S.L. (1968). Biomechanics of running. Journal of (he American Medical Association, 205(11), 97-104.

Smith CA. (L994). The warm-up procedure: To stretch or not to stretch. A brief review. Journal of Orthopaedic Sports Physical Therapy, 19(1), 12-17.

Smith C.F. (1977). Physical management of muscular low back pain in the athlete. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 117(September 17), 632-635.

Smith J.L, Mutton R.S., EldredE. (1974). Post contraction changes in sensitivity of muscle afferentsto static and dynamic stretch. Brain Research, 78(September-October), 193л-202.

Smith J.W. (1966). Factors influencing nerve repair. 1. Blood supply of peripheral nerves. Archives of Surgery, 93(2), 335-341.

Smith RE. (1986). Toward a cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8(1), 36-50.

Snell R.S. (1992). Clinical anatomy for medical students (4th. ed.). Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Solomonow M, DAmbrosia R. (199!). Neural reflex arcs and muscle control of knee stability and motion. In W.N. Scott (Ed.), Ligament and extensor mechanism injuries of the knee (pp. 389-400). St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book.

SongTM.K. (1979). Flexibility of ice hockey players and comparison with other groups. In J. Terauds and H.J. Gros (Eds.), Science in skiing, skating and hockey (pp. 117-125). Del Mar, CA: Academic.

Song T.M., Garvie G.T. (1976). Wrestling with flexibility. Canadian Journal for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 43(1). 18-26.

Song T.M.K., Garvie G.T (1980). A nth ropo metric, flexibility, strength, and physiological measures of Canadian and Japanese Olympic wrestlers. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 5(1), 1-8.

SontagS., Wanner J.N. (1988). The cause of leg cramps and knee pains: A hypothesis and effective treatment. Medical Hypotheses, 25(1), 35-41.

Soussi-Yanicostas N.. Harnida СВ., Butler-Browne G.S.. Hentali F, Bejaoui K., HamidaMB. (1991). Modification in the expression and location of contractile and cytoskeletal proteins in Schwartz-Jam pel syndrome. Journal of The Neurological Sciences, 104(1), 64-73.

Soica ТА. (1994). General treatment approaches for shoulder disorder. In T.A. Souza(Ed.), Sports injuries of the shoulder: Conservative management (pp. 487-508). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Spence A.E., Mason F..B. (1987). Human anatomy and physiology (3rd ed.). Menio Park, CA: Benj am in/Cum m ings.

Spindler K.P., Benson EM (1994). Nalural history of posterior cruciate ligament injury. Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review, 2(2), 73-79.

Stafford M, Grana W. (1984). Hamstring/quadriceps ratios in college football players: A high velocity evaluation. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 12(3), 209-211.

Stainsby W.N,, Fales J.Т., LHienthal J.L (1956). Effect of stretch on oxygen consumption of dog skeletal muscle in situ. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, 99(5), 249-261.

Stamford B. (1981). Flexibility and stretching. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 12(2),


Stanitski C.L. (1995). Articular hypermobility and chondral injury in patients with acute patellar dislocation. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 23(2), 146-150.

Siauber W.T. (1989). Eccentric action of muscles: Physiology, injury, and adaptation. In K. Pandolf (Ed.), Exercise and sports sciences reviews (pp. 157-185). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Steban R.E., Bell S. (1978). Track & field: An administrative approach to the science of coaching. New York: Wiley & Sons.

SteinackerJ.M., BothM., WhippB.J. (1993). Pulmonary mechanics and entrainment of respiration and stroke rate during rowing. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 14(SuppL 1), S15-S19.

SteindlerA. (1977). Kinesiology of the human body. Springfield, 1L: Charles С Thomas.

Stevens A.. Siijns Я., Rosselle N. Decock F. (1977). Litheness and hamstring muscles. Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 17(6), 507-511.

Stevens A.. Stijns H., Rosselle N.. Slappaerts K., Michels A. (1974). Slowly stretching the hamstrings and compliance. Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 14(5-6), 4 9 51 %

Stewart RB. (1987). Drug use and adverse drug reactions in the elderly: An epidemiologi-cal perspective. Topics in Geriatric. Rehabilitation, 2(3), 1-11.

Stiles E.G. (1984). Manipulation: A tool for your practice? Patient Care, 18(9). 16-12.

Stockton I.D., Reilly, Г, Sanderson F.H.. Walsh T.J. (1980). Investigations of с i read i an rhythm in selected components of sports performance. Bulletin of the Society of Sports Sciences, 1(1), 14-15.

StoddartA. (1979). The back, relief from pain. New York: Arco.

Stokes I.A., Wilder D.C., Frymoyer J.W.. Pope M.H. (1981). Assessment of patients with low back pain by biplanar radiographic measurement of intervenebral motion. Spine, 6(3), 233-238.

Stone W.J., Kroll W.A. (1986). Sports conditioning and weight training programs for athletic competition (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Stonebrink R.D. (1990). Evaluation and manipulative management of common musculo­skeletal disorders. Portland: Author.

Strauss J.B. (1993). Chiropractic philosophy. Levittown, PA: Foundation for the Advancement of Chiropractic Education.

Strickland A.I... Shearin R.B. (1972). Diurnal height variation in children. Journal of Pediatrics, 80(6). 1023-1025.

Strickler Т.. Malone Т., Garrett. WE. (1990). The effects of passive warming on muscle injury. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 18(2), 141-145.

Strocchi R.. Leonard! L, Guizzardi S. Marchini M., Ruggeri A. (1985). Ultrastnictural aspects of rat tail tendon sheaths. Journal of Anatomy, 140(1), 57-67.

Stroebel С F. (1979). Non-specific effects and psychodynamic issues in self-regulatory techniques. Paper presented at the Johns Hopkins Conference on Clinical Biofeedback, Baltimore, MD.

Sturkie P.D. (1941). Hypermobile joints in all descendants for two generations. Journal of Heredity, 32(7), 232-234.

Subotnick 5 /( 1 979). Podiatric aspects of children in sports. Journal of the American Podiatric Association, 69(7}, 443-453.

Sullivan M.K.. DeJulia J.J.. Worrell T.W. <]992). Effect of pelvic position and stretching method on hamstring muscle flexibility. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24(12), 1383-1389.

Sullivan P.D., MarkosP.E,, Minor M.D. (1982). An integrated approach to therapeutic exercise theory and clinical application. Reston, VA: Reston.

SunderlandS. (1978). Traumatized nerves, roots and ganglia: Musculoskeletal factors and neuropathological consequences. In l.M. Korr (Ed.), The neurobiologic mechanism in manipulative therapy (pp. 137-166). New York: Plenum Press.

SunderlandS. (1991). Nerve injuries and their repair: A critical appraisal (3rd ed.). London: Churchill Livingstone.

Sunderland S., Bradley K.C. (1961). Stress-strain phenomena in human spinal nerve roots. Brain, 84(1), 102-119.

Surburg I'.R. (1981). Neuromuscular facilitation techniques in sportsmedicine. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 18(1), 114-127.

Surburg PR. (1983). Flexibility e-xercise re-examined. Athletic Training, 18(1), 37-40.

Sutcliffe M.C.. Davidson J.M. (1990). Effect of static stretching on elastin production by porchine aortic smooth muscle cells. Matrix, 10(3), 148-153.

SulroCJ. (1947). Hypermobility of bones due to «overlengthened» capsularand ligamen-tous tissues. Surgery, 21(1), 67-76.

Sutton G. (1984). Hamstrung by hamstring strains: A review ofthe literature. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 5(4). 184-195.

SuzukiS, tiutton R.S. (1976). Postcontractile motomeuron discharge produced by muscle afferent activation. Medicine and Science in Sports, 8(4), 258-264.

Suzuki S., Pollack GH. (!986). Bridge-like interconnections between thick filaments in stretched skeletal muscle fibers observed by the freeze-fractured method. Journal of Cell Biology, 102(3), 1093-1098.

SwardL, Eriksson В., Peterson L (1990). Anthropometric characteristics, passive hip flexion, and spinal mobility in relation to back pain in athletes. Spine, 15(5), 376-382.

Swezev R.L (1978). Arthritis: Rational Iherapy and rehabilitation. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Szmelskyj A, O. {1990). Tire difference between holistic osteopathic practice and manipulation. Holistic Medicine, 5(2), 67-79.

Tabary .I.C., Tabary С Tardieu C. Tardieu G.. Goldspink G. (1972). Physiological and structural changes in the cat's soleus muscle due to immobilization at different lengths by plaster casts. Journal of Physiology (London), 224(1), 231-244.

Taiag T. (1973). Residual muscle soreness as influenced by concentric, eccentric, and static contractions. Research Ouarterlv, 44(4), 458-469.

Tamhun J.W., DeSimvne DM, Fonda D., Pale) R.S.. Buck C, Horwiiz A.E, Hynes R.O. (1986). Structure of integrin, a glycoprotein involved in the transmembrane linkage between fibronectin and actin. Cell, 46(2), 271-282.

Tanigawa M. С (1972). Comparison of the hold-relax procedure and passive mobilization on increasing muscle length. Physical Therapy, 52(7), 725-735.

Taunlon JE (1982). Pre-game warm-up and flexibility. New Zealand Journal of Sports Medicine, 10(1), 14-18.

Taylor DC, DallonJ.D.. SeaberA.K. Garret! W.E. (1990). Viscoelastic properties of cle- mustendon units: The biomechanical effects of stretching. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 18,300-309.

Teitz C.C. (1982). Sports medicine concerns in dance and gymnastics. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 29(6), 1399-1421.

Terracio L, Gut/berg D.. Rubin K.. Craig S.. Borg Т.К. (1989). Expression of collagen adhesion proteins and their association with the cytoskeleton in cardiac myocytes. Anatomical Record, 223(1), 62-71.

Terrell A. G.J. (1987). Vascular accidents from cervical spine manipulation: Report on 107 cases. Journal of the Australian Chiropractors'Association, 17.15-24.

Terrell A.G.J. (1988). Vascular accidents from cervical spine manipulation: Report on 107 cases. АСА Journal of Chiropractic, 25(4), 63-72.

Terrell A G.J. (1990). И is more important to know when not to adjust. Chiropractic Techniaue, 2(1), 1-9.

Terrell A.G.J. (1995). Misuse of the literature by medical authors in discussing spinal manipulative therapy injury. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 18(4), 203-210.

Terrell A.G.J, Kleynhans AM. (1992). Complications from manipulation of the low back. Chiropractic Journal of Australia, 22(4), 129-139.

Terrell A.G.J., Vernon H. (1984). Manipulation and pain tolerance. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 63(5), 217-225.

Turner J. С (1959), Umriss und Grundlagen der manipulativen Therapie. WS in Forschung und Praxis, 13,56-68.

Terrier J. C. (1963). Betrachtungen zur manipulativen WS Therapie. WS in Porschung und Praxis, 26, 62-67.

Tesch P.A., Hjorl H.. Balldin V.I. (1983). Effects of strength training on G tolerance. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 54(8), 691-695.

Tesh KM., Evans JH, DunnJ.S., O'Brien JP. (1985). The contribution of skin, fascia, and ligaments to resisting flexion of the lumbar spine. In W. Whittle and D. Harris (Eds.), Bioniechanica) measurement in orthopaedic practice (pp. J 79-187). Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Tessman J.R. (1980). My back doesn't hurt anymore. New York: Ouickfox.

Thieme W.T.. Wynne-Davis R, Blair H.A.R. BeU E.T., Joraine J.A. (1968). Clinical examination and urinary oestrogen assays in newborn children with congenital dislocation of the hip. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 50B(3), 546-550.

Thigpen I..K (1984). Neuromuscular variation in association with static stretching (Abstract), in W. Kroll (Ed.). Abstracts of research papers 1984 (p. 28). American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. Washington, DC.

Thigpen L.K., Moriiani Т.. Thiebaud Д. Hargis J.L (1935). The acute effects of static stretching on alpha motoneuron excitability In D.A. Winter R.W Norman R.P. Wells K.C. Hayes, and A.E. Patla (Eds.), Biomechanics IX-A. International series on biomechanics (Vol. 5A, pp. 352-357). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Thompson P.. Luco J.V.( 1944). Changes of weight and neuromuscular transmission in muscles of immobilized joints. Journal of Neurophysiology, 7,245-251.

Tideiksaar R. (19S6). Preventing falls: Home hazard checklists to help older patients protect themselves. Geriatrics, 41(5), 26-28.

Tiliman L.J.. Cummings G.S {1992). Biologic mechanisms of connective tissue mutability. In D.P. Currier and R.M. Nelson (Eds.), Dynamics of human biologic tissues (pp. 1-44). Philadelphia: Davis.

TilneyF, Pike F.H. (1925). Muscular coordination experimentally studied in its relation to the cerebellum. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 13(3), 289-334.

Tinker D., Rucker R.B. (1985). Role of selected nutrients in synthesis, accumulation, and chemical modification of connective tissue proteins. Physiological Reviews, 65(3), 607-657.

lippelt S.R. (1986). Lower extremity strength and active range of motion in college baseball pitchers: A comparison between stance leg and kick leg. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 8(1), 10-14.

Tobias M, StewartM. (1985). Stretch and relax. Tucson, AZ: Body Press.

Toft E.. Espersen СТ.. KalufldS., Sinkjaer. Т.. Hornemann B.C. (1989). Passive tension of the ankie before and after stretching-American Journal of Sports Medicine, 17(4), 489-494.

Tohma B. (1985). Flexibility and velocity. Track & Field Ouarterlv Review, 84(3), 44-47.

TorgJ.S.. VegsoJ.J, TorgE (1987). Rehabilitation of athletic injuries: An atlas of therapeutic exercise. Chicago: Year Book Medical.

Torgan C.J. (1985). The effects of static stretching upon muscular distress. Unpublished master's thesis. University of Massachusetts.

ToufexisA. (1974). The price of an art. Physician's World, 2(4), 44-50.

Travel! J.G., Simmons D.G. (1983). Myofascial pain and dysfunction: The trigger point manual. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

TRECO. (n.d.). Power stretch. Newport News, VA: TRECO Products.

TrinickJ., Knight P., Whiting A. (1984). Purification and properties of native titin. Journal of Molecular Biology, 180(2), 331-356.

Troels B. (1973). Achilles tendon rupture. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, 152(Suppl.}, 1-126.

TrombilasK, Pollack G.H., Wright X. WangK. (1993). Elastic properties of titin filaments demonstrated using a «freeze-break» technique. Cell MotUity and the Cytoskeleton, 24(4), 274-283.

Troup J.D.G., HoodC.A., Chapman A.E. (1968). Measurement ofthe sagittal mobility of the lumbar spine and hips. Annals of Physical Medicine, 9(8), 308-321.

Tsai L, Wredmark T. (1993). Spinal posture, sagittal mobility, and subjective rating of back problems in former elite gymnasts- Spine, 18(7), 872-&7S.

Tucker C. (1990). The mechanics of sports injuries: An osteopathic approach. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.

Tullos H.S., KingJ.W. (1973). Throwing mechanism in sport. Orthopedic Clinics of North America, 4(3), 709-720.

Tullson P., Armstrong R.B. (1968). Exercise induced muscle inflammation. Federation Proceeding, 37(3), 663.

TutlsonP., Armstrong R.B. (1981). Muscle hexose monophosphate shunt activity following exercise. Experimentia, 37(12), 1311-1312.

Tumanyan G.S., Dzhanyan S-A/. 11984). Strength exercises as a means of improving active flexibility of wrestlers. Soviet Sports Review, 19(3), 146-150.

Turek S.L (1984). Orthopaedics principles and their application (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Turner A.A. (1977). The effects of two training methods on flexibility. Unpublished master's thesis, Lakehead University.

Tutt/e W. W. (1924). The effect of sleep upon the pale liar tendon reflex. American Journal of Physiology, 68(2), 345-348.   ■ ,

Tneilmeyer Т.А. (1974)- A comparison of two stretching techniques for increasing and retaining flexibility. Unpublished master's thesis. University of Iowa.

Twomey L, Taylor./, (1982). Flexion creep deformation and hysteresis in the lumbar ver tebral column. Spine, 7(2), [16-122.                ,-■ ■-

Tvrte P.J., MitchellM. (1983). Total stretching. Chicago: Contemporary Books.

Tyrance H.J. (1958). Relationships of extreme body types to ranges of flexibility. Research Quarterly, 29(3), 349-359.

Tyrer P.J., BondA.J. (1974). Diurnal variation in physiological tremor. Electroencephalo-graphv and Clinical N euro physiology, 37fl), 35-40.

TyrrellA.R., Reilly, T, froupJ.D.G. (1985). Circadian variation in stature and the effects of spinal loading. Spine, 10f2), 161-164.

Ulmer R.A. (1989). The past, present, and predicted future of the patient compliance field. [Editoriall Journal of Compliance in Health Care, 4(2), 89-93.

UnsworihA., Dowsoni)-, Wright V. (1971). Cracking joints: A bioengineering study of cav-itation in the metacarpophalangeal joint. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 30(4), 348- 358.

Upton A.R.M., RadfordP.F. (1975). Motoneuron excitability in elite sprinters. InP.V. Komi (Ed.), Biomechanics (pp. 82-87). Baltimore, MD; University Park.

Uram P. (1980). The complete stretching book. Mountain View, CA: Anderson World.

Urban J.PC, BaylissMT. (1989). Regulation of proteoglycan synthesis rate in cartilage in vitro: influence of extracellular ionic composition. Biochemica et Biophvsica Acta, 992,59-65.

Urban J., Maroudas A., Bayliss M.. Dillon J. (1979). Swelling pressures of proteoglycans at the concentration found in cartilagenous tissues. Biorheologv, 16f6), 447-464.

Urban L.M. (1981). The straight-leg-raising test: A review. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 2(3), 117-134.

Urry D.iV. (1984). Protein elasticity based on conformations of sequential polypeptides: The biological elastic fiber. Journal of Protein Chemistry, 3(5-6), 403л136.

Vailbo A.B. (1974a). Afferent discharge from human muscle spindles in non-contracting muscles. Steady stale impulse frequency as a function of the joint angle. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 90(2), 303-318.

Vailbo A.B. (1974b). Human muscle spindle discharge during isometric voluntary contractions. Amplitude relations between spindle frequency and torque. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 90(2\ 319-336.

Vandenburgh И.Н. (1987). Motion into mass: How does tension stimulate muscle growth? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19f5), S142-SI49.

Vandenburgh H.H. (1992). Mechanical forces and their second messengers in stimulating cell growth in vitro. American Journal of Physiology, 31(3), R350-R355.

Vandenburgh HH., Kaufman S. (1979). In vitro model for stretch-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Science, 203(4377), 265-268.

Vander A.J., Sherman J.H., Luciano D.S. (1975). Human physiology: The mechanics of body function (2nd. ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Van der Meulin J. H.C. < 1 982). Present state of knowledge on processes of healing in collagen structures. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 3(Suppl. 1), 4-8.

Vander/oort A.A , Chexworth B.M., Cunningham D.A., Patterson D И, Rechnilzer, KovalJJ. (1992). Age and sex effects on mobility of the human ankle. Journal of Gerontology, 47(1),MI7-M21.

Van Deusen J., Marlowe D. (1987). A comparison of the ROM dance home exercise rest program with traditional routines. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 7(6), 349-361.

van DieenJ.il, Toussai»' И.Ы. (1993). Spinal shrinkage as a parameter of functional load. Spine, 18(11), 1504-1514.

van Mechelen W., HlobilH., Kemper H.C.G., Voorn W.J, de JonghR. (1993). Prevention of running injuries by warm-up, cool-down, and stretching exercises. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(5), 711-719.

Van Wjimen P.M. (1986). The management of recurrent low back pain. In G.P. Grieve (Ed.), Modem manual therapy of the vertebral column (pp. 756-776). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Vasu S.C. (1933). The Gheranda Samhita: A treatise on hatha yoga. Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical.

Vernon Н.Т, Dhami M.S.I., How/ey Т.P., Annett ft. (1986). Spinal manipulation and beta- endorphin: A controlled study of the effect of a spinal manipulation on plasma beta-endorphin levels in normal males. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 9(2), 115-123.

Vernon H., Meschino J., Naiman J. (1985). Inversion therapy: A study of physiological effects. Journal ofthe Canadian Chiropractic Association, 29(3), 135-140.

VerzarE (1963). Aging of collagen. Scientific American, 208(4), 104-117.

Verzar F (1964). Aging of collagen fiber. In D.A. Hall (Ed.), International review of connective tissue research (Vol. 2, pp. 244-300). New York: Academic Press.

Viidik A. (1973). Functional properties of collagen о us tissue. International Review of Connective Tissue Research, 6,127-217.

ViidikA.. Danielson C.C., OxlundH. (1982). On fundamental and phenomen о logical models, structure and mechanical properties of collagen, elastin and glycoasaminolycan complexes. Biorheology, 19(3), 437-151.

Volkov V.M., Milner E.G. (1990). Running and injuries. Soviet Sports Review, 25(2), 95-98.

Voluntary power of dislocation. (1882). The British Medical Journal, 1,515.

Volz R.G., Lieb M, Benjamin J. (1980). Biomechanics ofthe wrist. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 149(June), 112-117.

Vorobiev A.N. (Ed.). (1987). Weightlifting: Development of physical qualities. Soviet Sports Review, 22(2), 62-68.

Voss D.E., Ionia M.J., Myers B.J. (1985). Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (3rd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.

Vujnovich A.L.. Daveson. NJ. (1994). The effect of therapeutic muscle stretch on neural processing. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 20(3), 145-153.

Wahl L.M., В landau R.J., Page R. (1977). Effect of hormones on collagen metabolism and collagenase activity in the pubic symphysis ligament ofthe guinea pig. Endocrinology, 100(2), 571-579.

Wakoti В., Ridgeway E.B. (1967). The ultrastrocture of my о sin-extracted striated muscle fibers. American Zoologist, 7(3), 499-503.

Walker JM. (1981). Development, maturation and aging of human joints: A review. Physiotherapy Canada, 33(3), 153-160.

Walker SM. (1961). Delay of twitch relaxation induced by stress and stress-relaxation. Journal of Applied Physiology, 16(5), 801-806.

Wall EX. Massie J.B., Kwan M.K.. Rydevik B.J., Myers R.R., Garfin S.R. (1992). Experimental stretch neuropathy: Changes in nerve conduction under tension. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 74ВП), 126-129.

Wallensten ft, Eklund B. (1983). Intramuscular pressures and muscle metabolism after short-term and long-term exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 4(4), 231-235.

Wallis E.L. Logan G.A. (1964). Figure improvement and body conditioning through exercise. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Walsh M. (1985). Review. In F.J. Novakovski, Trainer-assisted isolated stretching (TAIS) (pp. ii). Lorton, VA: American Canoe Association.

Walter S.D, Hart I.E., MclntoshJ.M., SuttonJ.R. (1989). The Ontario cohort study of running-related injuries. Archives of Internal Medicine, 149(11), 2561-2564.

Walter S.D., Hart LE, SuttonJ.R., MclntoshJ.M.. Gauld M. (1988). Training habits and injury experience in distance runners: Age- and sex-related factors. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 16(6), 101-113.

Walther D.S. (1981). Applied kinesiology: Vol. 1. Basic procedures and muscle testing. Pueblo, CO: Systems DC.

WangK. (!984). Cytoskeletal matrix in striated muscle: The role of titin, nebulin and intermediate filaments. In G.H. Pollack and H. Sugi (Eds.), Contractile mechanisms in muscle (pp. 285-306). New York: Plenum Press.

WangK. (1985). Sarcomere-associaled cytoskeletal lattices in striated muscle. In J.W. Shay (Ed.), Cell and muscle motility (Vol.6, pp. 315-369). New York: Plenum.

Wang K, Ash J.G., Singer S.J. (1975). Filamin, a new high molecular weight protein of smooth muscle and non-muscle cells. Proceedings ofthe National Academy of Science (USA), 

Wang К., McCarter R, Wright J., Beverly J., Ramirez-Mitchell R. (1991). Regulation of skeletal muscle stiffness and elasticity by titin isoforms: A test of the segmental extension mode! of resting tension. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (USA), 88(6), 7101-7105.

Wang A'., McCIure J., TuA. (1979). Titin: Major myofibrillar components of striated muscle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (USA), 76(8}, 3698-3702.

Wang K, Ramirez-Mitchell R, Palter D. (1984). Titin is an extraordinarily long, flexible, and slender myofibrillar protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (USA), 81(12), 3685-3689.

Wang K, Wright J, (1988). Architecture of the sarcomere matrix of skeletal muscle: Immunoelectron microscopk' evidence that suggests a set of parallel inextensible nebulin filaments anchored at the Z-tine. Journal of Cell Biology, 107(6, Pt. 5), 2199-2212.

Wang K, WrighiJ., Ramirez-Mitchell R (1985). Architecture of the titin/nebulin containing cytoskeletal lattice of the striated muscle sarcomere: Evidence of elastic and inelastic domains of the bipolar filaments (Abstract). Biophysical Journal, 47,349a.

Ward R.C. (1985). Principles of myofascial release. East Lansing, Ml: Michigan State University.

Ward R.C. (1993). Myofascial release concepts. !n J.V. Basmajian and R. Nyberg (Eds.), Rational manual therapies (p. 223-241). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Warren A. (1968). Mobilization of the chest wall. Physical Therapy, 48(6), 582-585.

Warren CG , LehmannJF- KoblanskiJ.N. (1971). Elongation of ral tail tendon: Effect of load and temperature. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 57(31, 122-126.

Warren C.G., LehmannJ-F.. Koblanski ,1 N. (1976). Heal and stretch procedures: An evaluation using rat tail tendon. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 57(3), 122- 126.

Warren G.W. (1989). Classical ballet technique. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida